Every builder knows that a solid foundation is a guarantee of durability and strength of any construction. Even such very light and small constructions as gazebos also need a solid foundation under them. It is clear that the foundation for a heavy house and for a small structure will differ, but one should not neglect some rules and approach the construction process with irresponsibility. After all, if you do not arrange a quality base under the gazebo, you can enjoy the rest in it for a very short time, the structure can be damaged and, in extreme cases, collapse. Foundations come in different types. Therefore, in this article we will consider: what are the grounds, how do they differ, which one to choose and how to do it correctly.
Different types of foundations are used for both the construction of residential buildings and the construction of arbors. They differ in design, materials for manufacturing and device technology. Their choice depends on many factors, the main of which are:
Nevertheless, when building the foundation, your main task is to make it sufficiently reliable and durable. To do this, let's look at the different types of bases.
Pile type - better suited for viscous soil with high clay content. The presence of clay gives the soil a high level of deformation, so the foundation on piles would be ideal in this case.
Arbor on screw piles
Pillar foundation. This type of base is most common. When your soil is rocky or sandy, it is recommended to do this type of foundation. This type of soil is called non-cracking, as it undergoes minimal deformation. Even those who have never come across such works before can do this kind of foundation, because this is the simplest and most economical method that does not require professional knowledge and skills. The technology of the base arrangement is simple: columns of various materials should be installed evenly along the entire perimeter, a wooden frame (grillage) will be installed on them, on which vertical bars for the floor will be placed.
A slab or solid foundation. It can be called the most versatile type that can be used on any soil and with any gazebo weight. The essence of the work lies in the construction of the drainage site base by laying blocks of concrete. Such a monolithic reinforced concrete slab is resistant to various deformations. Often this type of foundation is used at high groundwater levels.
Using the slab
Belt foundation. As for the construction of houses, a fairly reliable and common type of foundation, repeats the structure of the load-bearing walls. If you make it under the gazebo, it will last much longer than the building itself. It's all about strength. To build such a foundation, you need to dig a trench, formwork and fill the entire perimeter with concrete.
On the tape footing
The foundation of the tires. With the growth of prices for building materials, such grounds become very popular among summer residents, as they do not require special investments, but are quite reliable. This design is quite simple and looks unusual, but impressive.
These types of bases will help your arbor to serve for a very long time. But remember that the "miser pays twice." To prevent this from happening to you, it is better to take care of a good foundation. Maybe some of you have already had cases when the building was made without a solid foundation. Share how long she stood? How satisfied are you with your decision? Write it in the comments so that all readers can learn from your valuable experience.
From asbestos-cement pipes
Having decided to make the foundation, tune in to the fact that even without building experience This is feasible if you strictly adhere to the recommendations, technology, make the right calculations, plan and follow them.
The first type of foundation that we will consider is a columnar one, which is used in most cases because of the simplicity of the structure and its relatively low cost. Due to its design and features, it can be installed on quicksand and other difficult soils. You can build it from a variety of materials, such as brick, metal and asbestos cement pipes. Foundation construction is possible in such options:
But in order to properly make a columnar foundation, you need to follow some rules:
Layout of a rubble foundation with a brick base
So, when all the rules are known, the choice material is made, you can proceed directly to the construction of the column foundation. The front of the work is as follows:
And now about everything in order and in stages.
To complete the work, you can not do without such materials and tools:
After everything is ready, get to work. To simplify the task, we will divide the work on the construction of the column foundation into several stages:
Concrete will dry for about a month. On this basis, your gazebo will stand for a long time. Sinking for such a foundation is minimal, since sand, gravel and concrete pillows were piled on the bottom. Now it is possible to carry out work on the construction of future structures.
Solid or slab concrete foundations need perform in the case when the gazebo is equipped with a brazier or barbecue stove and large closed walls, which gives it a lot of weight. Before work, prepare such tools and materials:
To begin with, clear the space for the foundation. Mark the area with pegs and cord. Then you need to dig a ditch of the same shape as the future gazebo. Its depth varies from the height of groundwater. To simplify the task, the pit can be dug by triggering an excavator. So, you will save your strength, but you have to pay for its rent. If you want to save money, take a shovel, ask for help from friends or relatives and do it together.
When the groundwater is close to the surface, the device of the drainage layer is obligatory. At the bottom you need to lay a layer of rubble, broken bricks and sand. All this is a good tamp hand rammer. After that, the surface around the perimeter is covered with a waterproofing layer, on which reinforced concrete slabs will be installed.
If you want to make a monolithic concrete pouring, you first need to lay the framework on the drainage layer of reinforcement. Formwork is made around the perimeter of ordinary planks, which are knocked down with nails or twisted with screws. To make the reinforcement mesh, you will need Ø12 or 14 mm reinforcement rods, which are connected using flexible wire. Lay the reinforcement and fill all with concrete.
A plasticizer can be added to improve the quality of concrete.
The entire surface needs to be leveled, expelling air, and waiting a month until the concrete attains full strength. To protect the foundation from external factors and mechanical effects, cover all with plastic wrap. For 10-12 day formwork can be removed, and if the weather is very hot, the concrete can be slightly dampened so that it does not crack. After drying, it can be decorated with decorative tiles or wooden planks.
The strip foundation is especially good for gazebos in that its structure allows the construction of any structure, shape and type. Moreover, it is able to withstand heavy loads and serve for a long time. A shallow foundation can be arranged for brick, wooden and frame arbors with a large mass. Thanks to its device, the entire load is evenly distributed over the entire surface. If you plan to put a barbecue or barbecue oven inside, you can make a concrete pillow under them separately.
A concrete mix, bricks, or blocks can serve as a tape. To make such a foundation, you will need:
Again, we divide all the works in stages:
It is recommended to remove the upper fertile soil layer inside the space between the ribbons.
Now you can install your pergola on the finished foundation. After the final work on its construction, the outer surface of the base can be revetted. Decorative coating is selected based on the material that was used in construction. This can be both decorative tile and wooden slats, then the gazebo will find a completely different look and will look very noble.
Increasingly, the owners of country houses began to use automobile tires for the foundation. This is an inexpensive and easy way to make a good basement under the gazebo. This method has several advantages:
The only disadvantage of this method is that when air temperature rises, rubber emits harmful substances. Although this disadvantage can be easily eliminated by protecting the tires from direct sunlight.
Make such a base of tires under the force of each. All you need is tires and knowledge that you can draw from this article. Please be aware that there are two types of tire foundations:
If you want a gazebo on this basis to stand for a long time, the device should follow these rules:
It is clear that not everyone is able to immediately decide to build such a tire construction.But it should be said that this technology has been used for a long time and there are examples that prove the success of this method. Moreover, it is appropriate to build a tire base on problem soil with a high degree of heaving. If you decide to build such a foundation, let's consider the technology of its construction.
As always, before construction you need to know which tools to prepare. The set is almost standard:
Backfilling of the foundation with tires
To make the slab version of the foundation, you need to clear the area : remove stones, debris, and tree roots. Be sure to remove the top fertile soil layer, the depth of which is 200-300 mm. Now begin to place the tires in two layers to provide a strong base. When laying the first layer of tires, be sure to check the horizontal surface level building. If necessary, substitute under the tires pieces of boards for alignment.
All voids, both inside the tires and outside, need to be filled with broken brick, rubble or gravel or other improvised materials.
It is not necessary to fill the voids only with sand, as with a heavy load the foundation can shrink strongly.
On the finished coating of tires you need to lay 1-2 layers of roofing paper, which will provide waterproofing. A formwork sticks around tires along the perimeter. The height of its sides should not exceed 100 mm. A reinforcing mesh is installed on top of the waterproofing material and all this needs to be filled with concrete. The concrete is stuck, leveling and, as usual, will dry for a month. Cover it with polyethylene for this period.
The column foundation of tires is slightly different from slab. Tires are used as pillars, into which concrete solution is poured. The order of execution is as follows:
As a result, you get a strong and durable foundation, which evenly transfers the load to the rubble. It will stand for a long time, so do not worry about its shrinkage or deformation.
If you like this article, let us know in the comments. We will also be glad to hear constructive criticism and additions, if any. You can also share your experience and write which version of the foundation is better. After all, "iron sharpens with iron," so these tips will help all readers.