Many people do not even suspect that all the necessary measures for the installation of electrical wiring in the apartment can be done independently, without resorting to the services of professionals. To do this, you first need to get a basic knowledge of the operation and connection of devices, then draw up a diagram, assemble a shield on it and then mount the wiring. It is in this order that we will consider the entire course of independent performance of work.
Consider 3 wiring diagrams.
|Beam wiring|| |
The photo shows the radial scheme. The conductor enters the junction box and a separate line goes to each outlet. The disadvantage of such a system is the high consumption of cable, but it is the most reliable.
|Serial connection|| |
Now consider what is called looping. In this case, all the sockets of the room are connected in parallel, with the result that a large saving of materials is achieved.
|In order to avoid problems later, all connections must be reliable|| |
This is where the advantages end. The reliability of the circuit depends entirely on how firmly the conductor is connected.
|The scheme is unreliable, so it’s best to abandon it|| |
Essentially, nowhere but in the household does this scheme apply. At any object where a serious check of the installation of the wiring will be performed, no one will issue a permission to operate the power network, because it is prohibited to tear the protective conductor. As a result, it may turn out that the grounding will only be on the first outlet, and the rest simply will not be connected.
|You can find a compromise solution|| |
B As a last resort, it is possible for the organization of grounding to connect the protective conductor on the radial pattern. It is important to note that the total energy consumption of all the sockets included in the chain should not exceed 16 A (these are the parameters for many modern sockets). For example: if the current consumption of the second and third sockets is 16 A, then at the contacts of the first outlet the load will reach 32 A. If it is under the same load, then the current will reach 48 A. In this case, the contacts will not withstand maximum permissible 3 times.
|The conductor can be bent and inserted into the device|| |
Somewhat increase the reliability of the system can be if the conductor does not tear, and run into the socket loop.
|Consider installing a mixed system|| |
Combined The system will be the best in terms of price / quality ratio. In this case, both the beam circuit and the parallel connection will be involved.
|There are several groups of sockets|| |
Consider on the example of a room in which there are several groups of sockets located on different walls.
|Each group has a cable|| |
With this connection to each group of sockets from the junction box is a separate conductor (beam), but each point in the group is connected in parallel. Conductor does not tear, and do a loop.
|With the aid of such a sleeve, pressure testing is performed|| |
In junction boxes, conductors need to be connected in some way. For crimping, you can use the liner.
|We will use the manual press|| |
For the work will need to purchase or rent a manual press.
|Welded wire|| |
Also for reliable connections used are welding. The wire is connected with a twist, but at its ends you can see a drop - this is the place of welding. Another copper wire can be soldered, but if the junction box is installed under the ceiling, then it will be extremely inconvenient to work in such conditions.
|Screw clamp|| |
Screws are allowed clamps, especially in cases where connections are made of conductors from different metals.
|Tip for multicore wires|| |
Should take into account that this type of connection without the use of a special tip is not suitable for stranded wires.Also once a year it is necessary to tighten the screws.
|Clamp Vago|| |
Also, Vago terminal blocks are used. Among electricians there is no consensus about their reliability.
|Another type of clips|| |
Also used PPE terminals and the like. Such a connection is better not to use when connecting power lines, and use only when installing lighting.
|Such a connection is not allowed to do|| |
Ordinary twisting is prohibited.
Since the most reliable joint is welding of twists, more attention should be paid to this.
|Got to the terminal box|| |
Distributive the box is fixed on the ceiling and several groups of wires are inserted into it. Our goal is to connect them securely. In the one where there are many wires - the power part, and in the other wiring for lighting.
|We will use the construction knife|| |
For Work will require tools:
|You also need the side cutters|| |
|Passatii will be needed|| |
|With this tool we will hold the wires|| |
|On a white electrical tape or masking tape it is convenient to write|| |
Leave a cable reserve of about 20 cm. In order not to get confused later, a white electrical tape is wound at each end - it is convenient to sign on it.
|Cut the insulation|| |
Now with a knife for stripping the sheath is cut. We do this with each cable, and only then the sheath is cut off. Such actions will protect the insulation of the wire from accidentally damaging it with a knife.
|Surplus can be bite off with side cutters|| |
Insulation bite off side cutters.
|Now remove the insulation from the wires|| |
Wires will be distributed in groups (or color). Insulation is removed from the wires by a stripper (about 4–5 cm).
|Twisted wiring|| |
Now running twist.
|Spread the wires into groups|| |
All three groups of wires are distributed and twisted.
|Welding machine|| |
Now use this welding machine.
|Welding is underway|| |
Perform welding need to work in special glasses. In our case, they were included.
|Insulation perform heat shrinkable|| |
For insulation took advantage of shrinking.
|We use the construction dryer|| |
This tube must be heated so that it crimps the wire. We did this with the help of a building dryer.
It remains to put the wires in the box, and you can start working with other cables.
If you doubt the correctness of the installation, welding can be performed after inspection.
The very first thing you need to figure out is whether it is possible to connect the ground. The fact is that in the houses of the old buildings, grounding is not provided. It is possible that the power supply system will be reconstructed soon and it will be possible to connect the ground wire. In this case, it is better to wire the three-core wire, and connect the grounding at the first opportunity that arises. Of course, if the house is very old and will soon be demolished (or no one will ever deal with it), then there is no need to spend money on a more expensive cable. Take the right decision will help professional advice.
Now let's proceed directly to drawing up a circuit. To do this, you need to find out some points:
As a visual example, we will use a ready-made simple wiring diagram in a one-room apartment.
Wiring plan for one-room apartment
The standard one-room apartment has:
Now let's take a closer look at the existing scheme, simultaneously discussing what can be changed in it.
These rules will help you to make a scheme for an apartment with more rooms.
Wiring in a three-room apartment
Because aluminum conductor can not be used, we will focus on copper. A large assortment can be confusing, so use a specific recommendation - you need to buy certified products. As for the choice between mono-core and stranded conductor, this is already a matter of convenience.
A large role is played by the conductor cross section. You can sum up the power consumption of the devices and calculate the required conductor cross-section or have some margin using the standard scheme:
This is the approach used by professional electricians. With electricity, jokes are bad, so it's best to be safe.
But this is not all yet - we will determine the type based on the labeling. For example, the cable VVGNG can be laid directly into the gate, without pulling through the corrugation, while VVGNG-LS is already intended for open wiring on the ceiling or wall, which, for example, will later be covered with plasterboard.
On the example of cable VVGng-LS 3 * 2.5 we can understand the marking.
Having made the scheme and having decided on the type and section of the cable, it is necessary to calculate how much it will be needed, taking into account the length of the ends that will remain in the junction boxes.
We’ll just make a reservation that walling in a panel house is fraught with unpleasant consequences, starting with heavy fines and costly elimination, right up to bringing the house to an emergency condition. Here and communication will not help avoid the revenge of neighbors. Is there a way out? In some cases, shallow vertical gouging is allowed, but it is better to fix the wire, and then plaster the wall. It is unprofitable, because the area of the room decreases? Yes, it will decrease, but very slightly - by 1 cm on each side, but there are no problems with the law and its neighbors. In brick houses there are no such restrictions, but caution must also be exercised, especially with floor slabs.
Now move the drawing to the walls.
In order to save the conductors, professionals often mount a corrugation in the wall, install electrical boxes and junction boxes, and then draw the cable.
From all rooms, the cables converge in one place - where the electrical panel will be installed.
Before you type an electric panel, you need to purchase a suitable size that will fit all devices. Consider how to complete and connect.
|Picked up all the necessary|| |
This shield we will assemble from budget components. To begin with, we will decompose all components along the panel as they will be subsequently installed. There is a voltage relay, diffrele and baggers.
|You will also need 2 tires|| |
Also side we install 2 tires - one zero, and the second for grounding.
|Voltage relays|| |
Purchased time-tested voltage relay Bison.
|He has powerful terminal blocks|| |
One Of its undeniable advantages is the presence of powerful terminal blocks in which you can securely clamp the wires.
|Automatic and UZO CHINT|| |
Automatic acquired firm CHINT. This purely Chinese product is used for the domestic market of China, so reliability is beyond doubt.
|Guard in exploded state|| |
We analyze our box so that it is convenient to work with him.
|The devices are installed|| |
Now you can do it installation of instruments.
|By the handle of the screwdriver, we bend the wire|| |
Install all the components, you need to connect them together. It is expensive to use a bus, therefore we will make an "accordion" from copper wire Ø4 mm 2 . Since the diameter of the screwdriver handle fits perfectly, rounding the wire along it, its ends will clearly fall into the holes of the machines.
|Made a loop|| |
It turned out a loop in which the end of the wire is not cut, but bent. Isolation is removed at the entry points into the machine.
|There was some kind of accordion|| |
Here This was the "harmonica".
|Each device was assigned a phase|| |
It remains to insert it and crimp the terminals.
|To keep the harmonic from interfering, the loops are bent inward|| |
Since the cover will be installed on top, so that it does not rest on the wires, they need to be bent inwards.
|Prepared wire for connection of RCD|| |
In order to connect the voltage relay to the diffrell we will prepare a piece of the same wire. At its ends we make a kind of loop, bending the wire. This will increase by 2 times the area of contact with the device.
|Black wire connected zero|| |
Similar other conductors are connected in this way.
|Voltage 232 Volts|| |
It’s time checks. Connecting the voltage relay to the network, check the voltage on each machine.
|After tripping of the RCD|| |
After pressing on the RCD test button, the voltage should be absent, which will be evidence that everything is assembled correctly.
After installing the switchboard, cable connections from all the rooms are made. In order not to guess later, automatons need to be signed. They can be numbered, and on the inside of the cover you can write where it is connected.
It remains to seal the grooves (or to fill the screed if the wiring is laid on the floor), and to perform repairs in the room.