Many people would like to spend a minimum of money on a good project. In fact, this is a reality, not a myth. To verify this, you need to learn how to build a cob house yourself. To implement such a project will need a strong desire. Building materials can already be said to be underfoot.
Before you take your first steps on the way to the project implementation, it is necessary to analyze, having learned everything about the pitfalls that can be encountered on the way to the desired goal. On the positive side of the scale, you can set up the following arguments:
Another bowl of scales:
Building such a house is more of a creative process. There are basic principles, but there are no ideally precise guidelines that can be followed. You are not tied to any particular form. There is the advantage of complete self-design of literally everything.
Saman consists of clay and straw
Construction technology arose several thousand years ago, when there were no plants for the manufacture of concrete floors, cement, etc. People used what was available and widely distributed. But it cannot be said that building from adobe is an out-of-date method. On the contrary, there are names that are used in everyday life: clay concrete, raw brick, etc.
So what is it? In the classical sense - a mixture of water, straw and clay. Various plant stems (usually fibrous) can be used as filler. There may be additives from sand, animal dung, lime and ordinary earth. Today, cement, plasticizers, synthetic fibers, antiseptic compounds and much more have been added to the mix. All this in order to improve certain qualities and compensate for deficiencies.
Testing the quality of clay
As noted above, the main component is clay. But not everyone is suitable for quality work. In order that subsequently cracks were not formed, clay should not be too fat. Also, it should not be too dry, otherwise there will not be a good setting, and all efforts will go down the drain. It can be brought under the order or get it yourself. In the second case, you will save a lot, but you will need to analyze its quality. To do this you will need:
This method does not take a lot of time and effort, but it makes it possible to estimate the composition of the building material as accurately as possible.The highest index is such a composition in which there is the smallest amount of impurities of fine sand. The ideal option is the area where there are layers of red clay, it has excellent plasticity, which greatly facilitates the preparation of the solution.
There are some signs by which you can determine where the clay is located:
Clay is the main, but not the only component. The filler plays an important role. His choice also needs to be taken seriously. The best option would be the stalks of winter wheat. This is due to the presence of a large amount of waxy substance. It repels moisture and prevents rotting, which is a requirement. With regard to the spring can not say this. Stems must be from a fresh crop.
If it is not possible to harvest the stems of a fresh crop, the main requirement is their good drying and the absence of fungus or rot. In the absence of straw, the use of hay is allowed, but necessarily from grasses that have a hard stem. Flax can be used, but it is advisable not to use synthetic fibers.
Choosing sand, you should not stop at the sea. The fact is that it has rounded shapes, which will adversely affect the viscosity of the final product. Usually chosen career coarse. It does not matter if in your case it is impossible to find such an option. Undesirable, but it can be replaced by the usual river.
Ready-made adobe blocks
Clay itself has a high viscosity, so it is a little problematic to dig it out, and then mix it with the necessary components. To facilitate the task itself, you need to think in advance about the workpiece. This is usually done in the fall. In winter, under the influence of frost and absorbed moisture, the material disintegrates into smaller parts, which are easier to work with. The preparatory stage is carried out as follows:
There are a large number of tables that show what the ratio of components should be. But the fact is that, depending on the area, the clay itself will differ significantly. What is ideal for one case may be a negative decision for another. This is because it is often difficult to predict shrinkage parameters.
Checking the quality of the solution
Determine the quality of the prepared mixture better by experiment. The first thing is mixed clay and sand. Water is added in portions so that the composition remains sufficiently thick. A small part is taken and rolled into the ball in the palms. If during this procedure the product sticks and the part remains on the hands, then it is necessary to add more sand. In the case when to form a lump does not work, then you need to add more clay. The second part of the test is carried out after the ball froze. It is necessary to throw up and give it free to fall to the ground. If its shape has not changed and no cracks have appeared, then you can start manufacturing the main blocks. In the case when it crumbled into pieces - you need to add clay, changed the shape, but remained intact - more sand.
These actions helped determine the optimal proportions for a particular case. Then you can proceed to the preparation of the bulk for construction. The kneading can be carried out in a construction trough, on a dense polyethylene film or tarpaulin. The most convenient way to do this is in the pit. It is necessary to dig a hole 50 cm deep. The depth of the depression is 1.5 m, width 2.5 m. It should not be filled to the brim, but to a height of 30-35 cm. If you make the layer larger, then it will be difficult to mix it well, which will to the poor quality of the final product. If these dimensions are observed, for one output, it will turn out to produce about 60 blocks with dimensions of 20 * 20 * 40 cm.
Making the batch
Before laying each component it is necessary to prepare the well well. To do this, its bottom and walls are tamped with the help of available tools. The entire area is covered with a film in such a way that it will overlap to the surface, which will prevent it from slipping. First of all, clay is poured, its layer should be 20-25 cm. From above, the space is covered with water so that the clay is completely submerged. In this state, everything is left for the night. This is necessary so that the material becomes as supple as possible and all the lumps soften. The next day, before the start of preparations, it is necessary to trample the clay well, so that the water passes to the lower layers. Next, add sand, mix well, then straw.
In order to speed up the process, the foundation pit can be made larger, and the mixing of the components can be made not by people, but by animals, for example, horses. But we must remember that it will have to constantly send, because it will follow its tracks, as a result of which the batch will not be carried out. You can use mechanical means, for example, a walk-behind tractor, but it is worth considering that a large amount of clay will stick to the wheels, which is difficult to clean. If this is done in a concrete mixer, then 2 or 3 stones up to 10 kg are put in first, they will ensure good mixing of sand and clay. The straw will need to be added not in containers, but with an external batch.
As it was written above, the optimal size for the blocks is 20 * 20 * 40 cm. But before proceeding to the manufacture of the finishing form, you need to make a test. Usually it is made of a cut board 3 cm thick. The inner space should correspond to the size of the future brick. The surface must be well ground to ensure that the mortar is easily separated. A small batch is made and several blocks are made. They are left for 7 days, after which the sides are measured in order to calculate how much shrinkage has occurred. Finite forms can be made with this gap.
Before you pour the mixture into the mold, Moisten walls with water and sprinkle with a chop or other suitable substance. Inside the clay is well rammed to remove all voids as much as possible. After removing the molding sample, the bricks are left for 3 days, it is better to cover them with a film, roofing material or slate. There must be a space between them so that they do not lie flush. After this period, all elements are transferred under the shed and stored for 10-15 days until full readiness.
Ultimately, the blocks from Clays are obtained by weight less than those of cement or silicate. Therefore, there is no need for them to build a massive foundation, but one should not forget that the condition of soils in a particular area also serves as a determining factor. In order to make the base with a small depth, it will be necessary to carry out such work:
Thanks to the exact dimensions, there are no problems with wall laying
It is a pleasure to build from such material. It is easy to process to the required dimensions with an ax. In order for the walls to turn out smooth, the following requirements must be observed:
In one day, it is better not to build more than two rows. This is due to the fact that each new adds weight, which can lead to the destruction of the lower blocks. The height of the walls must be done with a margin, which will subsequently shrink. An approximate figure was obtained in the manufacture of trial blocks.
House made of straw
Besides the way which was described above, where the manufacture and laying of blocks is required, there is another option. Its construction is performed several times faster and the costs of organizing the foundation for it will be much lower. But in this case, you will additionally need to stock up on wood. The general principle will be similar to the construction of a frame building.
In this case, a columnar or pile foundation can be used as a base. For the second option, you can purchase ready-made screw elements. They are immersed to a depth below ground freezing. They should be located at a distance of one meter from each other. Under pereschenki should also make a separate line. Their upper part should be approximately 30 cm above the surface. The ends should be aligned and a square penny with a size of 25 * 25 cm is welded on top. All elements are interconnected by means of a wooden grillage. To make it, you will need a timber with a size of 15 * 15 cm or 20 * 20 cm.
For a columnar foundation one meter apart, pits are dug to a level below the ground freezing. The formwork is installed inside and the metal crate is laid. Poured the solution and well rammed. The size of one item can be 40 * 40 cm or 50 * 50 cm.Above is the same wooden base as in the previous case.
Building walls from straw
Bars will be needed to build walls 5 * 7.5 cm or 10 * 7.5 cm in size, for corner beams - 15 * 15 cm or 20 * 20 cm.
Making the roof
For such constructions, the optimal solution there will be a straight gable roof with an angle that exceeds 30 °; it can even be 45 °. Thanks to this, it will be possible to minimize the load on the walls. But it is important to remember that such a structure is subject to gusts of wind, so it is necessary to analyze how things are in a particular area. Overhang of slopes should be at least 70 cm. This will protect the walls from flying splashes during precipitation. As the flooring, you can use any material you like.
Additionally, it is necessary to make a blind area and install a water drain system to prevent wetting of the walls.
Using this guide, you can easily cope with the independent construction of your future place of residence.
In this video, a young family shares the experience of building a classic house:
This video is about building a house from adobe:
The old samanna house is still strong
Small house from adobe
Adobe eco-house on piles
The original design of the house
Modern adobe house
The whole family