How to determine the level of groundwater in the area

When building, it is very important to consider many factors. One of which is the determination of the groundwater level. Not only the location of the building, but also its configuration will depend on the result. The proximity of sources to the surface can cause the destruction of the base, etc. In this article we will describe how to determine the level of groundwater in the area.

What is it

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Aquifers

Groundwater is the topmost layer fluid that lies in the ground. Sources are rivers or lakes that may be nearby. Another filler is precipitation in the form of rain and snow. At different times of the year the level may fluctuate. For example, in summer, when a strong drought, the groundwater level drops to a minimum, which causes the wells and creeks to dry up. Their close location to the surface may impose such restrictions during construction:

  • inability to organize a basement room or cellar;
  • inability to build an outdoor toilet;
  • difficulties in choosing the type and foundation size;
  • restriction on the use of certain building materials;
  • mold growth in the house;
  • complexity of laying communications in the ground;
  • high degree of heaving of the soil.

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Groundwater layout

According to the distribution level, there are 3 main types of aquifers:

  • Verkhovka. Can reach levels less than 2 m from the surface. Most often observed in areas where the composition of the soil is dominated by clay and loam.
  • Interlayer. It consists of water and other water that has been cleaned through a natural filter. Usually does not possess pressure.
  • Artesian. It is very similar to the previous one, but is able to independently rise to the surface, due to the presence of internal pressure.

The last species is quite rare, but it can be a source of clean drinking water without the need to lift it with deep pumps.

Drilling Method

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Prospecting Drilling

One of the modern and simple ways to determine the level of bedding is carried out using a conventional hand drill. The fact is that if the reservoir is located deeper than 2 meters, then there is nothing to worry about and you can safely carry out construction. And the garden boring machine perfectly makes the way on such distance. For work you will need:

  • spoon drill;
  • metal or other smooth rod;
  • tape measure.

With all the necessary tools, a small well is drilled. It is important to go deeper than 2 meters. When performing work, you will need to remove the soil in a timely manner so that it does not sprinkle. After reaching the required depth, cover the hole and leave it in this condition for a day. The rod is marked with roulette. You can choose a step that is convenient for you personally. It sinks to the bottom, and the fluid is visually assessed. These actions are worth repeating for several days. If the indicators do not change, then the value can be considered constant.

Such actions are best done in the spring. It is at this time of the year that the snow melts and rains fall, which makes it possible for the groundwater to reach its maximum value. For a more accurate result, several holes are made and measured.

Plants

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area The plants will be prompted

Plants serve as a good natural indicator the depth of the upper layer of groundwater. In order to use this method, it is important that the site has been under steam for some time. This period will enable the vegetation to occupy its niche. Pay attention to the following:

  • Reed. If it is in the territory that is allocated for construction, then, most likely, the reservoir is located at a depth of 1 to 3 m.
  • Rogoz. It is a high marsh grass. Often used for weaving various utensils. This species suggests that up to about 1 m of liquid.
  • Wormwood is a representative of the Compositae. If it is growing rapidly, the limits of the aquifer are from 3 to 5 m. Buildings can be freely conducted on this site.
  • Licorice is capable of letting the root system to a depth of 5 m. Usually it indicates that the upper threshold of water can reach 1.5 meters.
  • Blackberry, raspberry - top water can reach 60 cm in a specific area.
  • The gooseberry, currant and sea buckthorn are indicators of the laying of water pipes at a level of 1 m from the surface.
  • If apple and pear trees have been growing on the plot for more than one year, then you can be calm: the water is at a level of 2 meters or more. The fact is that otherwise such trees do not withstand a longer stay with a smaller occurrence of a layer of water.With the growth of the root system, there is a greater consumption of oxygen, which turns out to be small, and the plant simply withers.
  • For cherries and plums, water at a level of more than 1.5 meters will be required.

In the case when the plot was cleaned before the purchase, then you can ask the old-timers for the vegetation and their experience in construction work.

Other ways to determine

One of the simplest ways is to contact a land management service, where you can provide specific data or at least topographic maps by which you can determine elevations and lowlands. By the way, in this respect it is possible to conduct independent observations. Look around and see if the territory is on a hill or in a valley. The lower the level, the more likely it is that the groundwater will be close.

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Can be determined by the water level in the well

In case there is a well in the vicinity, then the level approximately can be estimated by it. To do this, just look in the middle, lower the measuring cord to the water mirror, then measure the distance. But the value will be approximate if the source is filled with an underground river, which can raise this value slightly due to the flow. Also, it will not talk about the saturation of the soil specifically on your site.

Fighting groundwater

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Plot with high groundwater

If so it happened that the situation in your area has changed dramatically and for some reason the groundwater began to get closer and closer to the surface, there are several ways that will help to partially alleviate the situation:

  • Organization of the hedge. To do this, you need to pick plants that are very fond of moisture and have a wide crown, which will contribute to a sufficient level of evaporation. For example, you can use wild rose, hawthorn, spirea, willow, sea buckthorn, elder. By organizing a small garden, you can significantly reduce the level of flooding.
  • How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Open drainage system Open drainage system. A trench is dug along the perimeter of the plot. Its depth must be at least 70 cm. In some cases, you will need to go deeper. Everything will depend on the level at which the top is located. The bottom is rammed and covered with sand, which is also well compacted. Its layer should reach at least 10 cm. Small rubble is laid in the same layer. Excess moisture will drain into this drainage. You can withdraw it as far as possible from the territory. The disadvantage of this solution is the need to constantly clean the canals so that they do not get swamped.
  • Closed drainage system. Trenches are prepared in a similar way as described for the previous case, but it will take up to 1.5-2 m to go deep. Geotextiles are laid on a sand-gravel pad. In a plastic or other pipe with a diameter of 200 mm holes are made to make it perforated. Nozzles are lowered into the trench and again covered with geotextiles. From above everything is filled with soil.
  • The well will help solve the difficulty to a certain extent. To do this, you will need to select the lowest point in the area and dig a well of the maximum possible depth. All water will be collected there.
  • How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Needle Filter Installation Needle Filter Installation. It is a commercial product. This is a pipe with an needle filter at the end. It connects to the vacuum manifold and pump. Water pumping is carried out automatically.
  • Forced pumping. For these purposes, several wells are drilled at specific locations up to the aquifer. Centrifugal pumps are installed in the middle, which pump the liquid to the surface. Next, it is discharged into the sewer or drainage system.
  • Vacuum installation. It is used in cases where the permeability of the soil is low. Tanks are installed on the surface. They create a rarefied pressure that causes water to rise in them. The removal is carried out, as in the previous case.

How to determine the level of groundwater in the area Caisson

When raising groundwater it is important to worry about protecting sources of clean drinking water. For wells, a caisson unit is used. Land works are carried out to the lower level of the impermeable layer. Set design, which will cut off the ingress of unwanted fluid inside. For wells applies the method of external and internal waterproofing. A trench is dug along the perimeter and the rings are processed with a special compound.

Now you know the basic methods by which you can roughly determine the level of groundwater. If they are at a depth of less than 2.5 meters, then construction on such a site is undesirable.

Read also:

  • Search for water for a well.
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