When constructing the roofing system of a small-sized building (private house, garage, shed, etc.), such supporting elements as single-span wooden beams are used. They are designed to overlap the spans and serve as the basis for laying the flooring on the roof. At the stage of planning and creating a project for future construction, the bearing capacity of the wooden beams is computed.
Wooden beams are designed to overlap spans and serve as the basis for laying the flooring on the roof.
The process of calculating, selecting and laying bearing elements should be approached with full responsibility, since the reliability and durability of the entire floor will depend on this. For many centuries of the construction industry, some rules have been developed for the design of a roofing system, among which it is worth noting the following:
The installation scheme for wooden beams.
The roof transfers the load to the load-bearing elements, which consists of its own weight, including the weight of the insulating material used, the operating weight (items, furniture, people who can walk on it in the process of performing certain works), as well as seasonal loads (for example, snow). Exact calculation to perform at home you are unlikely to succeed. To do this, contact the project organization for help. More simple calculations can be made independently according to this scheme:
Figure 1. Table of the minimum allowable distance between the beams.
Once you know the load, you can begin to calculate the dimensions of single-span wooden beams.
The bearing capacity of the beams depends on their section and step of laying . These values are interrelated, so their calculation is carried out simultaneously. The optimal shape for floor beams is rectangular with an aspect ratio of 1.4: 1, that is, the height should be 1.4 times as wide as wide.
The distance between adjacent elements should be not less than 0.3 m and not more than 1.2 m. In the case of installation of a roll of insulation, try to make a step that will be equal to its width.
If a frame house is being constructed, then the width is assumed to be equal to the step between the legs of the frame.
A special table can be used to determine the minimum allowable dimensions of the beams when they are stacked in 0.5 and 1.0 m (Fig. 1).
All calculations must be performed in strict accordance with existing rules and regulations. In case of some doubts in the accuracy of calculations, it is recommended to round up the obtained values.
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