The basic basis for the finished floor is the draft floor. Proper installation of the subfloor is a guarantee for the long life of the floor as a whole.
The scheme of the wooden floor on the logs.
A wet, dry and combined subfloor are technologically distinguished. The choice of method depends on the preferences of the developer, the wishes of the consumer and the purpose of the room. In private buildings of a small area, it is preferable to perform a subfloor using dry technology. In industrial premises with a large area and throughput, a wet subfloor will be most effective.
To get the installation done correctly, the following tools can be useful from the necessary tool:
Wooden lag installation scheme.
To ensure the ventilation of the underground in the corners of the building, it is necessary to make large holes. To exclude the ingress of garbage and other foreign objects they are covered with a grid.
As a log, bars of 150x100 mm are most often used. If they are made of wood of the second or third class, they must be further processed. The side to which the finishing floor will subsequently be attached must be leveled. This can be done with an ax or electric saw. From that, to what degree this side of a bar will be equal, horizontal of the future floor depends. Finished bars should be treated with antiseptic composition. You can do this several times.
Laying of the lag can be done by 2 methods:
For laying the lag along the overlaps in the bars of the bottom trim, grooves are cut through, the width of the width of the bars is lag. The prepared lags should lie flat and fairly tight. At the ends of the bars attach a rubber gasket, which will dampen unwanted noise. With a significant length of the bars such mount is not reliable.
Therefore, to increase the strength of the whole structure, supports are built. The supports are brick columns, which are located at an equal distance from each other along the entire lag line. The distance between them is determined by the thickness of the finishing board.
Ground floor installation scheme.
If the board is thin, then columns are often placed. For them, dig pits with the size of 20x20x40. After that, put in turn a layer of gravel and sand, ramming each of them. Next, put the valve and pour a solution of cement, sand, water in the ratio of 1: 3: 0.5. After the columns harden, several layers of roofing material are put on top of them for waterproofing. After that, they build columns of brick of the required height. A waterproofing material is placed on top of the posts, and then logs.
For the construction of a subfloor using 2 technologies (base), it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil, level and fill it with rubble of the small fraction. To ram Rostverk, covered with roofing material as a waterproofing, trim bars will serve as a support lags. If necessary, build additional support columns on the same principle as the brick. Just put a layer of waterproofing, and then logs.
Logs are fixed using dowels, metal corners and long screws. Any of the selected methods will be reliable. Everything is determined by the future load on the floor.
Before starting to install the lower flooring, support must be assembled. The material is a 50x40 mm timber or board 150x40 mm, which is then cut into 3 parts. It is fixed to the bottom of the lag on both sides. Further on these support the obreshetka keeps within.
Laying scheme for the material of the subfloor.
As a floor covering, it is more convenient to use OSB, fiberboard or plywood sheets cut to size. Moreover, their thickness is 12 mm and placed them in 2 layers. For reliable fastening of these sheets, you must perform the crates. The crate can be the transverse bars that are attached to the lower base of the support bar. In this case, it is necessary to cut the OSB or MDF sheets so that the joints between them are located in the center of the jumpers.
However, experience shows that for the construction of a subfloor it is better to use low-quality material, for example, a waste board, a picket fence. This is due to the fact that it is this material that changes its shape well and quite easily under the influence of aggressive media. After all, the lower base is subject to a significant influence of ambient temperature and humidity differences.
After laying the sheets on the batten, the installation of the draft wooden floor will be completed.
Next, we are working on its weatherization.At the same time, when working on floor insulation, it is better to walk through the logs, since the boards of the lower base may not be able to withstand the weight of a person. To avoid injury, you can put a thick board on the logs and move along it.
The subfloor is divided into wet and subfloor by wet technology. A characteristic feature of this approach is the need for solidification of the prepared solution.
Layout of the self-leveling floor.
In the self-leveling floor, the main binder component is polymeric, epoxy, polyester resins. Before laying the self-leveling floor base must be cleaned of debris. A hollow or ribbed concrete slab can be used as the base. It is necessary to apply a primer to this base to ensure a better hitch.
Insulating mats are most often used as thermal insulation, which are very carefully covered with a waterproofing film. Then the prepared solution is evenly distributed on the floor. For its preparation, ready-made dry mixes are used, which are mixed with water in the proportions indicated in the descriptions. It is impossible to violate these relationships: this may entail a change in the characteristics of the subfloor, which will affect the finishing coating. Bulk floor is usually laid with a thickness of at least 25 mm.
Bulk subfloor should harden for 10-15 days. In this case, no work on it should not be done. The perfectly flat surface of the subfloor makes it possible to glue ceramic tiles without additional measures Finishing flooring can be linoleum, laminate. If a parquet or laminate board is planned as a finished floor, then a layer of plywood is laid on the rough floors.
screed cement-sand screed.
A screed is a cement mortar used to level floor defects. In addition, it allows you to evenly distribute the load. A feature of this coating is that the screed is placed only on the base of the plates. Thanks to it, distortions are smoothed out, dents and cracks in the base are filled in, level drops are eliminated or, on the contrary, the required slope is created. With the help of a screed, engineering communications of the house are closed: water, sewer pipes, wires in the sleeve.
The screed requires 28 days for final drying. This time is necessary for concrete to acquire the required strength. After curing, a waterproofing coating is applied, and then a finishing floor is installed.
Most often use a combination of wet floor screed and self-leveling floor. Bulk floor will play the role of the final leveling of the surface.
It may seem that installing a subfloor significantly increases the total cost of building a house. However, it is a rough floor that will relieve from many problems in the future and extend the service life of the finishing floor covering. In addition, the insulation of the subfloor allows you to save on heating in the cold season.
Didn't find the answer in the article? More information on the topic:
How to level the floor in a new building with your own hands?
Instructions on how to level the floor in a new building in case of serious drops in the horizontal surface of the base. Preparation and leveling of floors using log or cement-sand screed.