As it says there, plant a tree, raise a son and build a house. The minimum program for the stronger sex. The desire to perform it is often very great - especially the part where the house is spoken of. But how to be if you have no idea which house is better to build and what materials to choose for it? Fold the walls of brick or ceramic blocks, and maybe quickly mount them on the frame with insulation inside? At the same time, construction technologies are different, and the cost of work and materials will be different. Well, I will try to answer all the questions in order. Let's start with the first one.
Two main construction technologies are now popular. The first one is brick or block monolithic masonry. This is a “wet” method, as the solution is mixed in the process. The second ("dry") method of construction involves the assembly of the house, as a designer, from large elements. The main part of the walls is insulation. In principle, both technologies allow you to get strong and quite livable structures.
The main thing is to choose the right one, from which to build, and also the one who will build. Especially it concerns frame houses. It is important not to lose the choice of materials of good quality, and builders to find intelligent, which do not mess up. Therefore, you should not hurry - if it is not so easy to spoil a house made of heavy materials, in the case of light materials it is better to measure it seven times, and building it is so perfect.
A logical question. And the answer is simple - heavy, otherwise massive, materials are also called stone. These include foam concrete and aerated concrete blocks, ceramic blocks. Well, a brick, of course. Such a house requires a strong reinforced concrete foundation, as a rule, tape. Overlaps are mainly made with frequent ribs, also made of reinforced concrete. Sometimes used wooden beams and floors.
The main materials from which heavy walls are built are: ceramic bricks and blocks, foam blocks, gas blocks, thermal blocks.
If they say that the walls near the house are made of light material, they mean either a panel-panel house or a frame. The latter consists of a frame (metal or wood), a layer of insulation (mineral wool or polystyrene foam) and a layer of cladding material. The light house has a lightweight foundation - slab, columnar, tape. Overlaps can be made of wood. Such housing is built quickly and easily, unlike a heavy house.
Light walls are erected from such materials as CIP panels, wooden and metal warmed frames, wooden beams.
The answer is this: if the material is selected correctly and without marriage, and the builders strictly observe the technology, then it will be enough for three generations at home (and any). And this is about 75 years, not less. With good repair, it will last longer. A house made of heavy materials, well built, can serve for more than a century. After all, the material of its walls is very durable. To achieve this result, moisture protection and a solid foundation must be provided. Keep in mind: if the overlap is made of wood, then after 50 years they will begin to require replacement.
A house made of heavy materials will last a long time and is a good investment of money.
The frame house, as a rule, serves from 25 to 50 years. Its life depends on the quality of the frame, as well as the material for thermal insulation and the features of its installation. The tree for the frame should ideally be absolutely dry and free from defects, the insulation should be of high quality and well closed from the ingress of water. Repair of the frame house is usually carried out only outside - the cladding material and insulation is replaced.
So: if you want both children and grandchildren to live in a house that you have built, then choose a brick or aerated concrete for construction. These materials are durable. None of the frame house will not stand as much as a brick.
You understand that a house that will last a long time will cost more. For example, today there are frame houses capable, according to calculations, to stand for 100 years. But building them is expensive - not cheaper than brick. And on average, of course, building a house with light walls will be less expensive. For them use materials such as mineral wool, polymer membranes, polystyrene foam, drywall, oriented chipboard, wood. The wall is not too thick, and the cost of its square meter is about $ 35. If to use the VULTURE panel, then it will decrease to $ 30. Having added an inexpensive, lightweight foundation and transportation costs (also minimal), we get a total cost of up to $ 240 per m² of space.
The cost of a heavy house depends on the material used.It is cheaper to use cellular concrete, the most expensive - ceramic blocks. Putting a piece of material on the solution - time-consuming exercise, so the builders have to pay 40% of the price of materials, no less. To build a brick wall with a thickness of 38 cm will cost $ 65 per m². Aerated concrete wall will cost less ($ 55 per m²), and ceramic - more expensive ($ 70 per m²). Will be a pretty penny and a massive foundation, and transportation of heavy materials. As a result, the average total cost per square meter will be up to $ 600.
So: I tell you what it is profitable to build a house from: a heavy house is more expensive than a light one, 2 or even 4 times. Therefore, if you have limited funds and do not want to go into debt, choose a house of lightweight materials. You will be able to make it more simply and trim it more interesting. Very popular today, are aerated concrete blocks, which also allow you to save a little compared with the brick.
Sometimes the answer to this question is decisive. Well, I will not be cunning - you will not be able to lay out heavy walls quickly. The construction year will take, no less. And this is for a not very large house (up to 150 m 2 ). Think for yourself: the month will go to the foundation, two months to the walls. To put overlappings, to put windows with a roof, to insulate, to mount the equipment - another 3 or 4 months. Well, the finishing works will be removed for several months. Therefore, even if you start to build, barely snow melts, by the New Year holidays it is unlikely to be settled. Prepare a housewarming party for the next summer.
But light walls due to the lack of "wet" works are not erected for long. Such a house can be built in 1-2 months. If all the prefabricated elements are prepared, then the construction is just lightning fast. The foundation will be ready in 2-4 weeks. And then they collect the frame, put insulation and sheathe the house, then carry out internal work. Everything about everything goes from a month to two, depending on the size of the house. And if you take ready-made panels, the house can be delivered in 1-2 weeks. In both cases, it refers to all the work to the finish. It can be started immediately, without waiting for the walls to dry or shrink. In short, start in the spring - in the fall just populate.
If, when choosing what to build a house from, the main criterion is speed, then an easy house is the best option.
Keep in mind that heavy houses and scope require solid. It is necessary to allocate a lot of space on the site, not only for the foundation, but also for the warehouse, mixing concrete, and carpentry work. Somewhere it will be necessary to stack a pile of garbage - broken brick, parts of the formwork, empty bags with boxes. To do this, prepare an area equal to the house itself. But for a frame building so much space is not required - you just need to put somewhere compactly packed set of parts. There is no need to look for where to knead the solution and where to put together the formwork. And from the CIP panels and at all "from wheels" it is possible to build.
So: If your garden already has a garden and everything is in order, then it is better to stop at a light house that does not require a lot of space during construction. And it is more practical to build a house from heavy materials on an empty site.
If you do not have all the necessary amount at once, you can invest money in each stage of the work in turn. True, the longer it takes to invest money, the greater will be the total total amount. Therefore, if there is an opportunity, it is better to pay everything at once.
When building a heavy house, it is quite possible to invest money gradually. First, build a box, and then take a break at any time. As soon as the required amount appears, you can continue. With an easy house, this option will not work - you will have to pay for the entire set of material, the assembly of the house and the installation of communications. Only with interior decoration can be postponed, starting it when the required amount is available.
Want to know what material to build a house that is not afraid of fire? I'll tell you now. Fire resistance, based on fire regulations, in light and heavy houses is different. So, heavy walls in combination with reinforced concrete floors give a second class of fire resistance, and with wooden walls - a third class. Heavy materials contribute little to the spread of fire, so neighboring houses can be built at a distance of 8 meters.
Light houses, which are based on a wooden frame, are not as resistant to fire. Their fire resistance classes are IIIa, IIIb and IV. This is natural - a tree, even covered with fire-resistant coating, will catch fire and collapse faster than a brick, for example. A membrane of polymers and polystyrene insulation can also poison, emitting toxins when heated. Therefore, such a house should be at 10 or 15 meters from the neighboring buildings.
So: heavy houses are more difficult to light up and not so dangerous in case of fire. And another thing: if your site has an elongated and narrow shape, firefighters may not allow building a frame house. After all, a safe distance to neighboring buildings will not be provided. But it all depends on the rules of your country of residence.
That is: from what to build the walls of the house so that unwanted guests do not damage them and do not penetrate inside? My answer is that it is not so easy to destroy a wall made of heavy material. And you will not take it with your bare hands, and it will take a lot of time with the instrument. And breaking a wall in this wall as a whole will not hurt, and it can be sealed with the same brick.
But the situation with a light house is different, and its strength depends on the covering material. In principle, any cladding material can be cut with the same grinder. But after all, under it there is still insulation that needs to be pulled out, and then also the plasterboard layer to be cut. It is bad, if the wall is damaged if the wall is damaged. But still the repair is quite realistic.
So: if you want to keep your house apart from being inaccessible to intruders, make its walls heavy.
A heavy house can be built on any project - there are no restrictions. Many people choose an exclusive ordering a project in accordance with all their wishes. But in the ready solution there are pluses. For example, you may be shown a house built on this project, and you can even see it from the inside. Find ready-made projects in numerous online catalogs.
A light house is usually built according to a finished project. It can be purchased from a specialized company with a set of elements for assembly. And you will produce the finish to your liking. But if you do not like a typical house, then for an additional fee you can easily order an individual project. But this should comply with the general requirements for frame housing.
A finished project will be cheaper. But with increased demands on the design of the house and its layout, a typical frame building project is unlikely to satisfy you.
Heavy materials for walls have thermal inertia. In other words, if such a house is thoroughly frozen, you will have to warm it for a long time, and within a long time there will not be a tooth on the tooth. But then, when the heater is turned off, the heated walls will give off heat to the house. Therefore, in such a room is comfortable enough, even if the temperature outside changes dramatically.
Light homes consist mainly of insulation that is not able to accumulate heat. As soon as you turn on the heater in such a house, you immediately feel the effect. But when you turn off the heat source in the room instantly becomes cold. Therefore, if the temperature outside the window changes dramatically, you will immediately feel it. It is necessary to regulate it with the help of the heating system. In the summer in the frame house is not hot - because its walls are not heated.
So: to warm up an easy house quickly and simply. Deciding what to build a country house, which will be used periodically, stop your choice on a frame structure. Accordingly, a house with heavy walls, slowly heating up and cooling down just as slowly, is best used for permanent living. In case of an accident, if the heating is turned off, it will still be warm in such a house.
As far as comfort is concerned, it is good to live in a light and heavy house. Both will be quite suitable and temperature, and humidity, and at any time of the year. The air in the rooms will remain clean and fresh. Naturally, all this will be provided only when using environmentally friendly materials and compliance with construction technology. Pay special attention to both the stone and the frame house for proper ventilation.
For heavy houses, it is very important not to allow moisture to get onto the surface of the walls, otherwise a fungus will settle on them. By the way, the warm and wet wall will cease to keep. Therefore, a layer of vapor-permeable finishes must be of proper quality.
As for the light house, in no case do not sheathe it inside the chipboard. After all, chipboards incorporate phenol, which is dangerous to human health. It is better to take plasterboard sheets and sheathe the walls with them in two layers.
I think now you can decide which materials, which technology and which project to use. I wish you successful construction!
|Material for walls||Durability, years||Time construction, months||The need for insulation||The need and type of exterior finish||Costs in%, brick|
|Walls made of heavy materials|
| Ceramic bricks |
|Over 100||About 12||You need||Preferably||100|
| Ceramic block |
|More than 100||Not less than 6||Depends on the thickness of the block, wall and p||accommodation||93|
| Aerated concrete blocks |
|Up to 100 years or more , the main rule is to prevent the walls from wetting.||Not less than 6||Mostly used, but depends on the region of residence and thickness of the block||A vapor-permeable||70|
| Foam blocks |
|About 100 years||Not less than 6||You need||Required, any||90|
| types Thermoblocks (solid concrete in polystyrene foam formwork) |
|Minimum 35 (the first houses were built in 1976)||1 - 3||Not required||Required, of any type||50|
|Walls of lightweight materials|
| Wood - timber |
|Up to 100 and more ie, depending on the material quality and care of the house||2 - 6||not required||Generally not required, depending on the region of residence, but need regular treatment with antiseptics.||60|
| Wooden insulated frame |
|Not less than 25, but will depend on the quality of the material and assembly 223>||1 - 3||Not required||Required, any type||40|
| Metal warmed frame |
|Not less than 25, depends on the quality of insulation||1 - 3||Not required||Required, any type||40|
| CIP panels (expanded polystyrene in the coating of OSB) |
|NOT less than 25||from 1||Not required||Required, any type||30|