Plastic windows are produced in a very wide variety of design options. They differ in shape, size, number of leaves, the way they open, the type of glass and profile features. Also, windows can be very interesting to decorate, both on glass and on the frame. There are completely innovative designs that can independently determine how much light to pass into the room, changing the level of transparency.
What types of plastic windows are and what to look for when choosing them, you will learn from this article. The window is not installed for one year, it is still worth a lot, so the design option must be carefully considered, consulted with the masters involved in installing windows, professional builders and people whose houses have windows installed earlier and they have certain experience in using them. Often you like the design are not too comfortable to use, or too expensive.
The characteristics of the frame material and double-glazed windows make it possible to produce metal-plastic windows with any number of shutters. Most often one, two or three-leaved. The option is determined by the installation site, the exterior of the house and the size of the window.
If the window is small, somewhere in the range of 1.5 x 1 m, then one sash will be enough.
Larger windows should be equipped with two leaves.
The three are equipped with wide and tall windows, the area of which allows using rather large double-glazed windows. The fact is that the design features of plastic windows require fairly massive vertical racks between the doors, especially the opening ones.
In the case of three double-glazed windows, two racks take up to 10% of the total area of the glazing, if the doors are larger, then the racks are larger, which means that the light transmission capacity of the window will decrease and its weight will increase without a special increase in functionality and design improvement.
The best option for standard windows in an apartment is two doors. But the appearance of the facade can be imposed certain restrictions city planning standards, especially if the windows overlook the historic or central streets. In this case, the number of valves is regulated and no changes can be made without the permission of the relevant authorities.
By choosing the number of doors, you can determine the options for opening them. Window designers offer a fairly wide range of options and their combinations.
The simplest window is the deaf. The double-glazed window is fixed motionless in the frame. In terms of functionality, this is the most inconvenient window. Although it transmits a maximum of light and retains the greatest amount of heat, it is rather difficult to wash it outside. Even the first floor will require a stepladder or prefabricated forest. But in most double-glazed windows, one of them may be deaf, but the second must be pivotal.
The swing doors can be opened exclusively inside the house on a vertical axis. These can be both doors in a double case window, or two side doors in a three-leaved window. This option is quite convenient if there are a lot of windows in the house and folding or tilt-and-turn opening mechanisms are installed on one or two of them. In this case, there are no problems with the washing of windows, or with the ventilation of rooms.
Flaps - only partially opened by displacing the upper part inward, while the lower crossbar is fixed on the horizontal axis. The opening angle is determined by the built-in stops. It is very convenient for ventilation of the room, an uncomplicated mechanism, reducing the cost of construction. But it is desirable to install such doors together with turning ones - it will be easier to wash them.
Combined, or tilt-and-turn, equipped with sophisticated fittings, allowing both to fold the upper part of the sash and open it in the room along the vertical axis. It all depends on the position of the control knob on the window. Some windows are equipped with a slit ventilation mechanism. These windows are the most expensive and are installed in combination with pivoting or folding, to reduce the cost of the entire project.
After finding out what plastic windows are by the opening method, it is necessary to obtain information about the type of profile they are made of. It has a very large impact on both the operational properties of the window and its price.
The main material for the production of metal-plastic windows is polyvinyl chloride-polymer, based on chlorine and ethylene, with the addition of plasticizers, modifiers and stabilizing agents.After the powdered raw material is melted, the resulting mass is pressed and the walls of the future profile are formed - the main component of the window frame.
After obtaining a complex configuration of the surface of the part, a “P” -shaped metal profile or a square shaped tube is inserted inside it and the whole structure is glued together with a heat-soldering metol. Modifiers and stabilizers convert polyvinyl chloride into a material that is durable to mechanical stress, chemically inert, incombustible, and not subject to ultraviolet radiation.
If pigment is added to raw materials, the profile will turn out not white, but any given color. As a result of all operations, a rectangular or trapezoidal tubular structure is obtained, inside of which there are from three to seven longitudinal isolated cavities. The reinforcing metal profile is located in the central cavity.
In the manufacture of window frames, the profile is cut into pieces of the required length and joined by gluing or welding in a rectangular or other spatial design. The outer part of the frame is cut from above and below, connecting the first external cavity "chamber" with the external atmosphere - the holes serve for ventilation and condensate drainage. The remaining chambers are sealed and not connected with each other or with the external environment.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has a sufficiently low thermal conductivity to be considered a good insulating material. But the presence of air-filled chambers inside the structure increases energy-saving properties several more times. The more such chambers, the lower the thermal conductivity of the window frame, the warmer it will be in the house.
Modern industry produces profiles for windows with the number of cameras from three to seven.
In mid-latitudes, it is necessary to select profiles that are not lower than five-chamber ones, with at least four internal cavities.
Three-chambers can be installed in warmer regions or in unheated premises - warehouses, outbuildings, garages.
Six and seven-chamber profiles have an increased mass, but do not give a sharp decrease in thermal conductivity. It is inexpedient to buy them - the windows are more expensive, but they are about the same in quality. It is better to install a wider glass unit - there will be more gain in heat protection.
With an equal number of chambers, for windows it is necessary to use a profile with an outer wall thickness of at least 2.8 mm and an inner one - more than 2.5 mm. This profile type "A", designed for residential premises. Profiles "B" and "C" can only be used in industrial or technical premises where there are no special requirements for the microclimate.
Glazing of plastic windows is carried out with the help of complex structures of two, three or four glass sheets fixed at a predetermined distance from each other. The outer part is sealed. The resulting inside, between the glasses, the cavities are called chambers.
Double-glazed windows installed on plastic windows can be:
Therefore, having learned that a window is two or three-chambered, it is necessary to clarify which cameras are meant - in frames or double-glazed windows.
The thickness of a single-chamber double-glazed window (two sheets of glass and a cavity between them) is within 14–32 mm. The space between the glasses on the perimeter is closed by a metal strip that separates the glass and keeps them at a given distance - a spacer frame. In the section it can be seen that the frame is not a strip at all, but a “P” -shaped profile, directed by the open side inside the frame.
In the lower part of the frame there are holes of small diameter connecting the chamber and a special hermetic volume inside the frame in which the moisture absorber is filled. As a result of the action of the absorbent, the moisture from the chamber is almost completely removed and the window does not mist over at any temperature outside.
But single-chamber packages are considered obsolete. They are installed on windows that are not too critical in unheated rooms, on balconies, loggias, in shops, production rooms, etc. In residential buildings, more complex structures are used - two-chamber (three sheets of glass and two cavities between them). They are somewhat heavier than single-chamber ones, but in terms of efficiency, heat and sound insulation exceed them almost twice. In this case, the light transmittance of both structures is approximately the same.
When using glass with a thickness of 4 mm, the total installation depth of a two-chamber package is from 30 to 58 mm. Often, manufacturers fill the chambers with argon, xenon, or another inert gas, but this is justified only when using energy-saving i-coated glasses.
If you are trying to sell more expensive inert gas-filled bags made of ordinary glass - do not fall for advertising tricks. At best, you will get a 1-2% reduction in thermal conductivity. When using I-glasses, the difference can reach 10 - 15% of the total heat-saving effect. This is already a pretty decent figure.
Compared to ordinary glass, a two-chamber glass unit reduces the level of street noise several times. In absolute terms, this is more than 45 dB. At the same time, the cost of such a package is not much higher than single-chamber.
It’s not advisable to buy windows with three-chamber packages, they are heavier compared to two-chamber packages, and the level of heat saving and noise insulation increases slightly due to decreasing width framework.
The properties of the glass unit largely depend on the properties of the glass. Leading manufacturers are constantly experimenting with glass, with the result that you can buy windows with double-glazed windows:
Heat-saving . The metallized film, invisible to the eye, is sprayed onto the glass and reflects the thermal part of the spectrum, passing all the visible rays at the same time. The glass has excellent transparency and does not distort the colors, but does not allow the heat to penetrate inside in summer and in winter to leave the room in the form of infrared radiation.
Tinted . As a rule, glass is dyed at the production stage by adding metal oxides or other chemical compounds to the mixture. As a result, the window, while maintaining transparency, takes a very attractive, sometimes exotic look.
Shock-resistant . Instead of conventional float glass, tempered or triplex is used. They do not differ in transparency, but much stronger. Most often installed on production facilities, in schools, in stores. It is convenient to install such windows on the lower floors, protecting the glass unit from an accidental impact or deliberate act of vandalism. Such glasses are completely safe, even when broken, they are scattered into rectangular pieces, unable to cause injury, or remain glued to a solid polymer film.
Noise protection . As a rule, they use several technological methods. In addition to the deposition of thin films, the chambers are filled with inert gases, and the thickness of the distance chambers is made different. As a result, sound vibrations are actively quenched, reflecting from intermediate surfaces. Compared with the usual two-chamber, noise insulation glass reduces the level of external noise by 20% more.
Mirrored . Such glass is produced in two ways - by sputtering a metallized or polymer film on the surface, or by adding metal oxides to the mass of glass during manufacture. In the second case, the color is extremely stable, and the amount of light entering the room is minimally reduced. The appearance of mirror glass is very interesting, you can choose different shades, from gold and silver, to emerald, bluish or pearl.
In addition to standard rectangular and square windows, you can order designs of almost any configuration. It is only necessary to find a manufacturer who makes such windows - these are very complex products and many workshops that perfectly make standard windows do not even take up complicated ones. If triangular or hexagonal can still be made on conventional equipment, then arched, round or oval are assembled on special machines.
But still there are the following windows on the market:
The bay system
Non-standard windows adorn any interior and can even become its "highlight", turning an ordinary facade into a palace-like appearance. The most popular are arched windows of various varieties - from semicircular and horseshoe to lancet and ellipsoid. When ordering such windows, you need to know that the radius of curvature should not exceed 40 - 45 cm.
When ordering triangular windows that look great on buildings with high roofs, you also need to pay attention to their configuration - any of the corners is not may be less than 30 0 . They are more difficult to manufacture than rectangular and cost more, besides, it differs in some nuances and methods of their installation. If you order triangular windows, then only with installation.
Approximately the same level of complexity is also with trapezoidal windows, which look very good on the facades of cottages and attic houses. Here there are the same restrictions - the angles must exceed 30 0 . But the options for opening sashes are much larger than those of triangular ones; for ease of use, trapezoidal windows are comparative with rectangular ones.
Round windows are the most difficult to manufacture. They are used for non-standard design and purpose premises - studios, artists' studios, in hotels, especially designed in nautical style. But with success they can be entered into the architecture of a country house. In their manufacture there are the same restrictions on the radius of curvature, as for the arch. The maximum radius is limited only by the weight of the window and ease of use.
Bay windows and gantry windows, protruding from the wall plane or completely replacing it, have also become fashionable and popular. Such designs are made only to order and can take completely different shapes and sizes. In combination with different design of glass and frame, non-standard windows allow you to achieve a completely stunning effect both in design and in functionality.
Having examined plastic windows, the views of which are described above, you can expand the selection with elements of different decorations, for example, instead of the usual white profile, choose one that is colored 150 RAL colors. For staining, special formulations are used that form a durable coating, like a polymer, just 80 microns thick. Painting can be done only in the factory.
Lamination is also very resistant and durable - gluing a special film imitating the surface of wood onto a profile. This is done under high pressure and temperature exclusively on special machines. From ordinary wood, such surfaces differ only in resistance to moisture and durability. Qualitatively glued laminate will last no less than the window itself.
Stained glass windows belong to the original type of decoration. They are carried out on the inner glasses of double-glazed windows and, in addition to completely amazing visual effects, are highly durable and durable. They can not be damaged by anything, and paints, varnishes and special tin separating elements are designed for decades of operation. It is only important to choose a picture that best matches the style of the house.
The choice of windows is a fascinating and responsible exercise. You find yourself in a completely different world of beauty and grace, in which only the one who approaches the choice carefully and assesses both the design and the practical properties of the proposed structures can orient.