The construction of each private house ends with the arrangement of the roof, which is characterized by some features of the structure. Before proceeding with the installation of the roof, it is imperative to build support elements designed to hold it securely. The rafter system of wooden houses should be arranged in such a way that the load is evenly distributed on the walls and foundation of the building.
Diagram of the truss system of the gambrel roof.
This system includes several structural details:
The supporting roofing system in a wooden house will require the use of freshly cut coniferous trees. At the same time it is extremely important that they are not affected by mold or insects. Before processing the log must be well dried. They are considered suitable only when the degree of internal humidity drops to 20%. The base of the blades is made of shear boards with a cross section of 5 * 15 cm, and the frame is created from small bars with a cross section of 5 * 5 cm or small plates with a thickness of 2-3 mm.
The truss system and all its parts consisting of wood must be treated with special mixtures before installation, which prevent the formation of mold and insect infestation.
Ramp assembly scheme.
The construction of the supporting roofing structure should be started with a mauerlat device (10 * 10 or 15 * 15 cm wood bars). They can be placed both on the wall itself and on the protective layer that covers their upper part.
Bars are fixed with pins provided during the construction of walls or their protective layer. Also mauerlat can be fastened with wire ties, which also need to be built into the wall during its construction.
Roof railing systems imply the installation of hanging and neslon bearing elements. The first ones have the shape of triangles, where the 2 bottom corners abut the wall. In this case, the support base distributes the existing load on the walls, which, in turn, rest against the foundation of the house, creating a solid structure.
If there is a need to reduce the load, it is necessary to tighten the support base with a kind of tightening. In the role of a puff can be a transverse beam, which is present in the design of houses with a single or gable roof type. It usually houses an attic floor. If such a beam is absent, you need to make sure that the bearing cross member from above is of sufficient reliability to withstand all possible loads.
The second ones have a similar construction, but in addition to the extreme angles, there is a central reference point in the hanging rafters. It can be an interior wall or a supporting column located inside the building.
Diagram of the device and fastening of the rafters.
In the process of designing the roof of a wooden house you need to foresee the type of truss system. For houses with a room length of 6 m is recommended to equip the concrete supports.
Suspended rafters are suitable for roofing systems in buildings that have rooms greater than 12 m in length, but in this case there must be one central support inside.
For rooms longer than 15 m, a minimum of 2 carrier columns will be required.
Some houses are built according to unusual projects. In such situations it is possible to install combined roof systems, which include both suspended and trailing supports.
These elements are required to bond the supporting legs to each other. In some buildings there are no supporting walls, so it is customary to equip them with a reliable ridge girder that fits onto the supporting columns.
Roof rafter system implies the presence of bolt and strut elements, which provide additional reliability under the influence of loads. In particular, they are resistant to wind loads. Additional supporting parts are most often installed in homes with a complicatedly arranged attic roof.
Latch and strut elements in a wooden house are placed with an interval of 60–200 cm, which depends on the building materials used, the heat insulating layer, the thickness of the support base and the periodic loads (precipitation and heavy wind).
Tools for splicing truss legs.
First of all, it is necessary to prepare the base for the placement of bearing elements. On the walls you will need to arrange a protective layer of waterproofing material, and lay a layer on top of it.
In the process of planning the roof you need to choose the desired appearance, the level of inclination and the location of additional structural elements. The inclination level is made on the basis of the material used to cover the roof:
The following materials and tools will be required for the installation of a truss system in a wooden house:
Getting to the arrangement of the supporting structure, it is necessary to make the connection between the ridge girder and the supporting elements. On them in a row are placed the main rafters, which need to be strengthened with nails, screws and parts of the metal.
When fastening the support base to the mauerlat, you need to make a cut to prevent the support from slipping. It is highly undesirable to make cuttings on the Mauerlate, as this may reduce the strength of the future structure. It is recommended to fasten these elements with the help of metal corners and nails.
Wood-based buildings are deposited in any case as time passes due to the drying of the logs. Therefore, there is a special system of sliding supports, which is designed to cope with the most common problem of wooden houses. Its installation implies focusing only on the ridge girder. Sliding supports are placed at the extreme points of attachment of the ridge and rafters. At the joining points of the mauerlat with the supporting base, the fastening is created by the following methods:
Before proceeding to the construction of supporting elements for hip and other complex roofing systems, it will be necessary to design a configuration of bearing elements designed to improve the reliability of the bearings. To do this, resort to the use of additional trusses, among which is often used Sprengel.
A sprengel is a bar that is designed to hold a support under the diagonal rafter. It is placed in the corner between the outer walls or directly on the mauerlate, which is located in this area. If it is necessary to increase the reliability of diagonal rafters located far from the end parts of the house, it will be necessary to create a trussed truss, consisting of a sprengel, a stand and two struts.
Improving the reliability of the truss system of a wooden house can also be made on the basis of the mating support bases. In this case, they consist not of one, but of two boards. If you place the overlap of other materials for tightening, the truss system will be able to optimally distribute the load on the supporting elements of the house.
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