If we neglect the insulation of the room under the roof of the house, or do it wrongly, then you will not get into trouble. A cold wind in the winter will blow into the cracks, and moisture will accumulate in the form of condensate on the rafters and the ceiling. As a result, the tree will begin to mold and rot. And you will have to heat more, because the heat will partially evaporate through the roof. Therefore, it is better to foresee everything in advance, having learned how to properly warm the attic and not make mistakes at the same time. So read.
Good heat insulators are now produced not so little. The most popular are fiberglass and mineral wool. That they are used most often when we warm the attic.
Fiberglass material is the cheapest. It is good that does not burn, does not contain harmful components and organic substances. If the fiberglass is tight to the base, then it keeps heat very well. But this happens only if the installation of the structure is made in compliance with all the subtleties of technology.
Glass wool has some significant drawbacks. First of all, it is the presence of fine dust from fragments of glass fibers. Very dangerous if such dust gets into the eyes. Do not allow it to hit the skin - it will begin to itch, and the scratches that appear will not heal for a long time. And when glass fragments hover in the air, nothing good comes of it. That also look, you will inhale this dust. But if you wear a respirator or a building mask, then nothing terrible will happen. And it is inconvenient to use glass wool when weathe walls that are located at an inclination - after a while this insulation will no longer fit tightly to them.
Wool from mineral basalt fibers in many ways shows better results than glass wool. Its natural ingredients are effectively complemented with synthetic, and as a result, the necessary balance is achieved. This material is lightweight and is not able to cause such harm to health, like fiberglass. Therefore, for the attic of a private house, this heater should be used more preferably than glass wool. And it is also very good for them to isolate plasterboard partitions to protect against noise. After all, it is much better to delay the sound than cotton wool from glass threads.
An experienced professional builder who has been engaged in thermal insulation for a long time will not think long. On the question of how to insulate the attic with his own hands, he will answer that it is best to use stone wool made of basalt fibers. Let it be slightly more expensive, but safer and more reliable in operation. Therefore, it often makes sense not to count a penny, but to choose the best option.
Mineral wool is usually produced either in the form of square-shaped slabs or in the form of a web rolled into large rolls. This carpet is convenient to warm the horizontal surfaces, and the plates are good to use where the surface is vertical or located at an angle.
To begin with, we need to insulate structures around the entire perimeter of the room. The next step will be to make the insulation of the insulation from moisture, as well as organize a vapor barrier and ventilation around the contour of the insulation.
A layer of insulation should be placed on the roof, floors and partitions. If there is a gable, then it should be warmed and his.
# 1. Thermal insulation of the roof.
Since the slopes of the roof near the attic are on a slope, they must be laid with a material that does not change in shape and size over time. Therefore, deciding how to properly insulate the roof of the attic, it is better to take not a solid sheet of basalt wool, and cut (for example, in the form of plates). In the process of isolation, they can be easily interconnected. To reliably insulate the roof, heat insulator plates are tightly inserted between its rafters. Additionally, the insulation is placed under the rafters or above them. At the same time, the crate keeps it, as shown in the figure.
If the width of the plate is insufficient and the gap remains, fill it with a strip of material cut with a knife using a knife. At the same time, a centimeter of 2 or 2.5 is added with the expectation that stone wool may shrink slightly over time. The resulting piece is necessary with the effort to drive into the space between the plate and the rafters.
It is very important to carefully consider and carry out the thermal insulation of such complex elements as a ridge, overhangs, endova. Where the plane of the roof changes its shape, you need to try to dock well all the details of the heater. This ensures that the insulation circuit is closed. Details are shown in the following two figures.
You should also be very careful about the joints between the roof and the walls and openings for windows. To avoid freezing, attic windows should be insulated with material of sufficient thickness, as shown in Figure 4.
As for the roof overhang, we provide moisture protection for it, as well as openings for ventilation. How to do this, see the following figure.
# 2. Insulation of floors.
When building a house with an attic, three types of floors can be used. Therefore, in this place, warming the attic with their own hands is carried out in one of three ways.
On a flat, flat surface located horizontally, it is best to use rolled insulation. It is rolled over the entire plane, simultaneously plugging the gaps between the rafters.
# 3. Thermal insulation of the gable.
For the gable, three methods of thermal insulation are also used, which depend on the building structure.
In the absence of the possibility of external insulation of the walls of frantons, internal insulation of walls can be used, how to do it correctly, see the article:
# 4. Thermal insulation of partitions.
Wondering how to insulate the attic from the inside, they also think about the insulation of its partitions. It is best to do this with mineral wool slabs - the construction will be fairly light, non-combustible, and retains heat well. These partitions are usually made on a frame with guides, which also serve as supporting elements for the casing. This facilitates the installation of insulation. Slabs of mineral wool are placed either along these guides or in a vacuum. It should be noted that in this case the noise can be well muffled. For better suppression of sound between the partition and the floor place a layer of noise-absorbing material, see figure.
In order for the heat insulator to serve for a long time without losing its properties, it is necessary to lay a waterproofing layer both above and below it . Do not forget about ventilation. To prevent the layer of insulation from getting wet from condensation of evaporation when it comes into contact with a cold surface, we will provide a vapor barrier. It prevents diffusion of steam to the outside. As a result, the insulation remains dry, and the walls with rafters do not rot and mold. A layer of waterproofing not only protects against moisture, but also prevents the wind from blowing heat, see figure.
Water trapped on the roof after rain or snow is brought out using two-level ventilation. Its first level is located between the waterproofing and the roofing material, and the second between the heat insulator and the waterproofing layer. Air inlets are made on the overhang, and weekends - on the ridge of the roof. In order for the heat-insulating material to be well ventilated, there are special ventilation devices in the moisture-proof film, see figure.
The distance between the roof and the waterproof film must be at least 2 centimeters, otherwise the condensate will soak the insulation.To fix the film, special counterbeams are mounted, the height of which is not less than 2.4 centimeters. The film should not be stretched, otherwise it may burst under the weight of flowing water as the air temperature changes.
It is very convenient to use special superdiffusion membranes - their use makes one of the ventilation levels superfluous. In this case, one layer of hydro and wind insulation, which is located above the insulation, is sufficient. And the air gap between the membrane and the heat insulator is no longer needed.
And now another advice for those who want to know how to properly warm the attic from the inside. The inner walls of the room located under the roof should be covered with a vapor barrier film. It is fastened with staples for a stapler, and at the joints it is carefully sealed with a special tape designed for such a film.
Basalt wool covered with a vapor barrier membrane.
So, if we take into account all these recommendations, choose the right material and do everything in the right order, then the result will certainly please. And you can be sure that neither a cold wind will penetrate your attic, nor the snow and rain will wet it.