Wood is one of the best building materials. While the tree is in the ground, it is constantly being renewed, thanks to which some species can grow for thousands of years. The situation with finished products is completely different; it must be covered with special means in order to protect it from environmental influences. If the staircase in your house is made of wood, then you need to know how to paint a wooden staircase.
Variety of all kinds of colors
It’s true that wood has beautiful structure as well as pleasant tactile properties. So why spoil it with chemicals? This is required to protect against:
- various pests;
- rapid wear;
- exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
Finally, wood is painted to give a tone that will match the interior and the realization of a unique design idea.
Special tools not only do not spoil the appearance of the wood, but also emphasize the virtues that the tree already possesses. The most commonly used:
In order to make the right choice, it is important to know for what specific purposes certain finishing materials are intended and what subspecies exist.
Even before purchase
Before you decide which option will be the best solution in your case, you need to analyze the following points:
- Impact of precipitation. This is true for stairs that are on the street.
- The amount of sunlight entering. The composition of the coloring matter for the stairs, which is under direct ultraviolet exposure for most of the day, differs from that which can be used if the product is located in the shade. This also affects the final cost.
- Gloss or mat. Usually for ladders select the floor, which has a matte or semi-matte structure. It is more expedient from the point of view of usability. Glossy surface is quickly erased and loses its appearance. Although there are types of varnishes that are able to maintain shine, and at the same time resistant to physical effects, for example, "yacht".
- Hue. It is important to decide whether a slight adjustment will be made to the tone or whether there will be a complete color substitution.
- How long does it take to dry out and will there be people in the room at this time?
- Will you do the painting yourself or entrust it to professionals.
By its nature, varnish is a resin that is diluted in a specific solvent. By the number of components emit:
- One-component. In this case, you simply open the jar, dab the brush and start work.
- Multicomponent. Commonly used by professionals. In their application there is a certain flexibility, because the master himself decides how much solvent and hardener to add. The consistency will depend on the properties that can be selected to specific objects.
The basis for a varnish can be of different origin, it will depend on it toxicity level and other properties. Among them, there are:
- Water-based or acrylic. This type is most often used for interior decoration. This is explained by the fact that it is the least toxic, since ordinary water is used as a solvent. For complete drying with the formation of a solid film will take about two weeks. It is fireproof, but it is better not to apply it where high intensity of load on the flooring is planned. Such a composition makes it possible to emphasize all the beauty of a natural pattern, without obscuring it.
- Alkyd. The most common type. It can be used both indoors and for outdoor decoration. It is based on alkyd resins. Like the previous version, it does not spoil the color of the wood, because it is transparent. After drying, the layer is resistant to water, so it can be easily washed. It is applied using a pneumatic tool or microfiber roller. Full setting occurs within three days.
- Oil. If you plan to give the stairs a brilliant look, some elasticity to the tree, a little change in tone, then the choice should fall on this look. But it is worth remembering that it is used for primary processing, it is not so resistant to moisture. Therefore, for the reliability of the top it will need to be covered with a layer of another type of varnish.
- Polyurethane. Such compositions will be the finest solution for the stairs.The varnish of this type has a short drying time, and is also very resistant to abrasion, temperature, elastic and not subject to destruction when moisture enters. Among the disadvantages are the toxicity of the solvent, as well as the tendency to yellowing with time.
- Nitrolaki. Not recommended for staining stairs or flooring. This species is very susceptible to wear due to physical exposure.
- Epoxy. Withstand scuffing on the cover. They have high strength and elasticity. Not suitable for outdoor use, as they are not resistant to the effects of climate change.
There are some other variations: shellac, bituminous and coal varnishes, but they are unsuitable for use in the set conditions.
When choosing a varnish it is also worth paying attention to whether it is self-priming. If this is not the case, then you will additionally need to purchase a primer and cover the wood with it before painting.
Wood covered with stain
Stain can still be called impregnation. This is a liquid that has a pigment in its composition, which allows you to give the desired shade or completely change the color of wood. There are such types:
- On a water basis. It can be produced both in dissolved and in dry form. The advantage of the second option is that you yourself can adjust the concentration. Before using the prepared mixture it is necessary to remove solid inclusions. This can be done simply by filtering the liquid through cheesecloth. One of the drawbacks of this stain is the partial swelling of the tree, which leads to the raising of the fibers. Therefore, after application and drying, it is advisable to walk on the surface with fine emery paper. For even distribution it is better to use a pneumatic spray. Otherwise stains will remain.
- Alcohol based. Available in the same form as the previous version. But it is better to buy a ready-made solution, since it is rather difficult to find alcohol of the required quality. Drawing is made in the same way, as well as water solution. The advantage is a fairly fast drying due to the evaporation of the base.
- Based on solvents or nitromorilki. The properties are similar to alcohol, but when painting, there is an unpleasant odor.
- Oil based. Usually, linseed oil acts as a solvent. In this case, there is practically no unpleasant smell. The dye is applied evenly and gently. The likelihood of uneven spots is small.
- On an acrylic or wax base. Considered an ideal solution among impregnations. It is convenient to paint, it is difficult to spoil something. In addition, an additional protective layer is formed that repels moisture.
- Based on alkyd varnish. This impregnation already has a varnish in its composition, therefore applying it, you immediately perform two operations.
For floors, stains are not used as a separate composition , usually after the stain is applied any suitable varnish.
Enamel is a type of material for painting, which can be called 2 in 1. They have coloring pigment, and the basis is one of the varnish types, so their varieties coincide with those that are among the varnishes:
According to their characteristics with regard to adhesion, resistance to moisture, ultraviolet and physical impact, they are also comparable to the corresponding varnishes. All that remains is to choose the color in which I would like to paint the stairs.
This is an exotic material in all respects. It is made from shellac - a substance that resembles wax produced by a particular type of insect. Its mining is a very painstaking job, so polish has a high cost. Most often it is used for furniture that is not intended for everyday use. The technology applied to the surface is very complicated and laborious. If someone decides to use this tool for the floor, then at the final stage the surface must be covered with several layers of compatible varnish for protection.
How to paint
After you have determined which to use substances for painting, it is necessary to know how this process is performed correctly.
- It is good if there is an opportunity to apply the coating before the entire structure is assembled. Then it will be possible to process all surfaces equally well.
- If the staircase was made of coniferous wood, then it is desirable to remove excess resin. It is important to do this, becauseresin can interfere with the absorption of the coloring matter. For this, a solution is prepared on the basis of acetone. We need 1 liter of hot water, soap, 200 ml of acetone, 50 gr. potash, 50 gr. baking soda, 10 gr. ethyl alcohol. The prepared liquid is applied with a wide brush, after which the wood is left for several hours. The resin will exit through the back of the board; it will just need to be washed off. Next, the wood is laid for drying.
- For the next step, we need a surface grinder and fine sandpaper, as well as putty for wood. The entire surface is carefully examined for chipping and potholes. If necessary, putty. After drying it is necessary to make grinding. The product is set aside for 1-2 days. It must again acquire the humidity that is in the room, after which some fibers may rise. To smooth them, another grinding is carried out.
- It is important that there is as little dust as possible in the room where the painting will be carried out. After grinding you need to carry out general cleaning. The main dust layer can be removed with a construction vacuum cleaner, then a damp cloth is used.
- The next step is to prime the surface. May be impregnated with several layers. If, after the first pass, the fibers are swollen and lifted, then you need to once again polish and apply a new layer.
- It is best to apply the coloring composition with an electric or pneumatic instrument (use glasses and a respirator with replaceable filters to protect the airway). If there is no such hand, then an ordinary brush will do. For liquid solutions, a wide soft-bristled flute is used, for thicker ones - with smaller solid bristles. The brush should be held at a 45˚ angle.
- In order to emphasize the wood pattern, a stain is applied of a suitable shade. Then she varnishes.
- It is important to coat at least three layers. The first - along the course of the fibers, the second - perpendicular, the third repeats the first. Each new one is applied after complete drying of the previous one. In the process you need to be very careful so that there are no smudges and transitions of tone.
Painting the Stairs
If you are painting an already installed march to the second floor then one trick can be applied. In order to maintain permeability, it is necessary to paint the steps of the stairs through one (it should be moving from the top down). You can freely climb if necessary. After full drying the second half is painted.
As you can see, when you have enough information there should not be any particular difficulties. It is often difficult for us to decide, to do something with our own hands. The process described above will be the same, no matter where you decide to paint the stairs: in the country, at home or on the street.
Construction of wooden stairs
Production of railings for stairs
Installation of balusters on stairs
The technology of staining wooden stairs can be found below: