Many who begin repairs in their apartment, decide on redevelopment. This method will allow rational use of the territory of his apartment. However, often redevelopment affects the bearing walls. How to be in this situation? Is it possible to demolish the bearing wall? Or, is it possible to make an opening in the bearing wall? We consider the features of the supporting walls, as well as cases when they can be made an opening.
House stability is achieved due to the presence of load-bearing walls, which are made of heavy-duty material. If one of the walls is removed, then the strength of the whole structure will be endangered. Due to the demolition of the wall engineering calculations will be disrupted. Conclusion: it is impossible to completely remove the bearing wall, it is fraught with great trouble. It is quite another thing - making the opening in the bearing wall. In some circumstances this is allowed. But this will require prior approval of the issue of redevelopment with the relevant authorities, carefully making calculations.
Plan of load-bearing walls of the floor
The thing is that the bearing wall is subjected to heavy loads. Therefore, because of how strong it is, it depends on the lifetime of the whole house.
Not in all cases, you can get permission to make an opening in the supporting wall! This is due to the fact that the design of houses in all cases may be different. It is especially problematic to get such permission if you live on the first or second floor. In these places, the walls are under special stress.
Some take the wrong position on this issue. They make an opening in the wall, and then in fact go to the authorities that they, they say, did not know or forgot to turn. But such people should be aware of the following. According to the latest rulings, the unauthorized making of an opening in the supporting wall can entail heavy fines, and in the worst case, the deprivation of the right to reside in this apartment. But this is the maximum that you can run into. At least in this case will force to restore the wall. Even if you managed to hide the fact of redevelopment, sooner or later they will know about it.
If you live in a brick house, then getting permission to make an opening in the supporting wall is easier.
So, to get the coveted permission, you will need to collect the following documentation:
If you do get permission, you can get to work.
With regard to the manufacture opening, many will think about a jackhammer. But this view is erroneous. Although this method is time-tested, it is not effective in all cases. Moreover, the use of a jackhammer for the manufacture of an opening in the bearing wall has several disadvantages:
Preparation for dismantling
Today there are a number of modern technologies that allow you to quickly and Minimal labor costs make an opening in the bearing wall.
Diamond cutting of openings
For Begin is necessary to carry out a number of preparatory processes. A jumper is prefabricated, which will take on all the main load from the above-located wall array. This element is very important: the safety of the whole building and yours will depend on its strength, respectively.In this case, the following should be considered:
In the case when the opening is made in a large-sized wall, the slabs should first be propped up. For example, props can be made from pipes or logs.
First, mark and make a temporary support
As for the material for the lintel, it is ideal steel is an option. It is the most reliable and sturdy material for this purpose. As a rule, you can purchase a channel that connects with bolts on both sides or an I-beam. If you chose to install the channel, then for its connection fit bolts M20. The distance between them should be half a meter. The length of the jumper should be sufficient so that it does not bend under heavy loads.
Now we proceed to making the opening. To begin with, the plaster is removed from the wall. To do this, you can first draw the outline of the opening with chalk. Then the opening for mounting the jumper is stitched. These strokes are made from two sides. Next, you need to drill the holes for fastening the jumpers with bolts. These niches should be well cleaned so that you can easily install a channel. Dust should be removed by moistening the wall with water.
Dismantling the wall after manufacturing the reinforcing lintel
After the strobe has been manufactured, prepare cement mortar from the M500 brand. The solution should be dense and thick. It should be put in a manufactured shter, and after that, install the channel and tighten it with bolts. Now the whole structure should be properly frozen.
In the process, voids may form. How to eliminate them? To do this, you can take small pieces of the block / brick, which are installed on the same solution.
Bolted joints must have washers without fail!
After that, you can proceed directly to the punching of the opening. You can use any of the above methods. It should be noted that the penetration of the opening must be performed gradually. Consider how you will eliminate the formed garbage and how big the waste should be.
After the opening is made, the slopes should be trimmed. In some cases, it is possible to make reinforcement structures, especially if the opening has a greater thickness. To do this, the corners are mounted metal corner, which can be welded to the jumper. These corners are also welded together by metal plates. It remains only to plaster the slopes and proceed to the finishing finish.
Strengthening the opening in the load-bearing wall
There is another method to make a lintel from a reinforced concrete beam. By its strength, it is not inferior to the above technology. To install it, you must first make a through opening for the entire length of the concrete beam. She, in turn, fit into the cement mortar. Punching the opening is possible only when the cement with the beam grabbed. The subsequent process is similar to the above.
If you want to use non-standard interior design solutions for redevelopment, you can make an arched opening in the supporting wall. But in this case, you need to make a special design. For the manufacture of such an opening, it will be necessary to preliminarily prepare a profile or other material that will exactly repeat the outline of the opening. Fastening is carried out by the same principle. The only difference is that the structure as a beam should be bolted not only to each other, but also to the wall.
Arched opening in the supporting wall
Weigh all and for the punching opening in the supporting wall vs. Remember that you must first obtain the appropriate permission.
We advise you to find out:
Detailed instructions for making the opening in the supporting wall: