More and more specialized devices are being produced by manufacturers for domestic or professional use, besides convenience, adding a new problem to customers - which device to purchase. There are no special difficulties to establish a high-pressure washing that was previously available only to professionals, but which one to choose among the vast number of proposals - to solve this becomes quite a challenge, especially considering the number of characteristics that need to be taken into account.
You must first understand where to look - in the direction of household or professional devices, decide on the type of food, need a mobile or stationary sink, and also solve the problem of the need for water heating. After that, you can already select the desired characteristics - water pressure, performance and other functionality.
To understand how to choose a high pressure washer, you first need to imagine the principle of operation of the purchased device. Any car wash consists of a specific set of components - the difference can only be in their performance and optional equipment.
1. Inlet fitting for a hose supplying water from an open tank or connecting directly to the pipes of the water supply system.
2. Bundle - pump-electric motor . This is the "heart" of the sink, which takes water from the source and places it in a high-pressure chamber.
3. Safety automatics . Monitors the state of the entire system - so that the engine does not overheat or there is no excessive pressure in the pump chamber.
4. Hose for supplying water under pressure . The convenience of work depends on its length, and the strength and quality of the materials used are related to the total resource of the entire system.
5. The washing gun is a direct tool of the operator of the high pressure washer, which opens and closes the water pressure.
6. Nozzles . With proper selection and use significantly increase the convenience of working with a sink and reduce the time spent on it.
7. Network connection cable . Requirements for its length and the level of protection from moisture may vary slightly depending on the class of the wash itself - mobile or stationary.
8. Body . Most often, as such, it is used on mobile car washes - it can be either with complete protection or in the form of a frame on which all components are mounted.
These are only essential components of any system. In some cases, the whole structure can be supplemented with additional equipment, for example, a water heating system or protection lines.
Choosing a high-pressure washing, you must begin with an answer, for what purposes it will be purchased and how often it will be used. To do this, you need to know the differences between the main varieties of these devices: domestic and professional, mobile and stationary, with autonomous power supply or from the network, as well as in what cases you need heated water.
Any professional equipment differs from household equipment, first of all, by its service life. If household high-pressure washing is designed to work an hour or two a day, then professional models can be used, albeit intermittently, but throughout the working day.
The capacities of the devices and the quality of the materials used in their production differ accordingly. Household washing at a water flow rate of about 500 l / h will produce a pressure in the range of 20-160 Bar. To reduce the cost and facilitate the whole structure, the main components of the washing gun, pump and housing are made of plastic. The engine is mainly used single-phase, with a capacity of not more than 1.5 kW.
Professional models can consume 800-1200 liters of water in an hour, but they give a maximum pressure of up to 1500 bar, which allows for high-quality cleaning of most surfaces. Brass, bronze and alloy steel predominate as materials for the washing pistol and pump. Depending on the total power of the washing, single and three-phase electric motors of the order of 3 kW are used.
As a result, if the household does not need to use the high-pressure washer for a long time, it makes no sense to acquire a professional device, since its maintenance will be quite expensive. Below is a comparison of high pressure washers of various classes.
Hot water in any case copes with contamination better than cold water. But the point in acquiring a sink with a water heating unit is only if it is necessary to often oily and greasy dirt from the surfaces.The need for this often arises when working in the field of agriculture or at food processing facilities. Also, heating significantly helps when working in the winter, when cold water will be difficult to clean off the ice or frozen dirt.
At the same time, the function of water heating requires some knowledge of the rules for its use from personnel. For example, in winter, you cannot start washing with warm water a car that stands in the cold (with a cold body). It is necessary either to start washing with cold water, gradually raising its temperature, or to drive the car into a warm box and let the body “warm up”.
The choice of heated washers must be treated very responsibly, since a diesel burner is often used as a thermoblock. This is primarily due to the fact that the rapid flow of water simply will not have time to warm up with standard electric heating elements, and installing powerful heaters with additional tanks is a plus to the cost of electricity. It is also necessary to take into account the inevitable increase in the size and mass of the car wash itself and the corresponding loss of mobility, if this is an important factor in the selection.
Among the undoubted advantages of water heating, it is a careful attitude to the paintwork of a car body, which is destroyed when washing with cold water in winter.
Some users mistakenly confuse the way to power a high pressure washer with using it as a mobile or stationary device, which is fundamentally wrong opinion.
High-pressure washers can be powered from 220 or 380 volts. Three-phase washers are powerful professional devices. High pressure washers designed to operate from a single-phase network are the most common devices and are compact, cost-effective models. Choose one or another wash depending on your needs.
Autonomous devices can be installed far from power lines and use an internal combustion engine as an energy source. Most often they are used on construction sites or in forestry, in the absence of electricity.
The vast majority of household high-pressure washers are mobile devices, the housing of which is often located on a frame with wheels for easy movement site. At the same time, the power of the device is not always tied to its size - it is not necessarily a mobile sink that is a home appliance and is not always stationary is professional, although in most cases it turns out that way.
It makes sense to install stationary washes only indoors and for work inside it, although such varieties as washing posts or gantries can stand under the open sky.
Since the consumption of water and electricity in stationary is much higher, there must be a serious reason for installing them in a private garage.
When it is decided which high-pressure washer to choose, you can move on to the details - the characteristics of the equipment in general, as well as the quality and capabilities of its component parts .
The higher the pressure created by the pump in the discharge chamber of the pump and the nozzle of the water gun, the better the quality of the surface cleaning, because the more powerful the water jet is easier to knock off dirt. The flip side of the medal is the ability to spoil the surface to be cleaned, so in some cases it is necessary to feed the water jet at an angle. For professional high pressure washers, certain personnel qualifications are needed. For average values of pressure, sufficient for domestic needs, it is considered to be about 100-160 bar, and all that is higher is the lot of professional models.
A somewhat dual indicator - on the one hand, it shows just the water consumption per hour, and on the other - the possibility of washing to work without interruption, because with high pressure and low productivity you will have to take breaks while the pump pumps water back into the discharge chamber. Depending on the class of washing, the performance of a household device can be from 350 to 500 l / h, and professional at least 2 times higher.
This is one of the central elements of the high pressure washer - the stability and power of the entire device depends on it. The task of the pump is to suck water from the source and feed it into the outlet chamber, creating in it a pressure of about 150 atmospheres. Most often, coaxial-type pumps with an inclined disk are used in washers, which allows you to adjust the pressure during operation.
It is often possible to hear controversies on the subject matter of the material used for the pump body and its gaunci, where plastic or metals are used. In favor of the plastic says the cost, but the most reliable pumps are still metal. Pumps made of plastic are often not collapsible, and the cost of replacing them can reach half the cost of a new car wash and even more.
The main task of the electric motor is to drive the pump, so there are no special requirements for it - the more powerful it is, the easier it will be to cope with the rotation of the pump rotor and less warm. The most commonly used collector engines, which, at a fairly modest size, provide the necessary power.
When evaluating an engine, it is necessary to additionally associate its characteristics with the applied cooling and protection circuit. The latter, when the pump sets the optimum pressure, can turn off the motor or switch the flow of water to the inlet hose. In the first case, the engine will turn on and off several times during the washing process - accordingly, the damage to the windings from inrush currents will be increased, which reduces the life of the engine (especially if we consider that start-up will occur under load).
If the pump runs continuously, an overpressure will occur in its outlet chamber. To avoid this, the engine must be periodically shut off, which means the inevitable frequent impact on its winding inrush currents. This problem does not exist in systems that do not turn off the engine when an overpressure occurs, but opens a valve that transfers water from the output tank of the pump back to the water supply hose, simply driving it around.
This function is called " by-pass ", which literally can be translated as "workaround". Its presence indicates a slightly higher power consumption, but at the same time significantly increases the life of the electric motor. Additional protection of the electric motor is ensured by the presence of a thermal sensor, and the pump lock protects the hydraulic lock from excessive pressure.
Since the hose must withstand the pressure created by the pump, it is often tough and clumsy. Each manufacturer is obliged to check it at the factory and issue the appropriate certificate. According to this document, hoses for high pressure in some washers are designed for a working pressure higher than that created by the pump by 10%.
Selection of length is carried out depending on the intended use of high-pressure washing. For washing the car there is quite enough a bar length of 4 meters, and for cleaning the facades or garden paths it is already better to choose a longer length - about 7-8 meters.
Devices with a long hose are sometimes equipped with coils for winding the hose. This simplifies the work and prolongs its service life.
By and large, the washing gun is part of the high pressure hose, as it simply opens and closes the water outlet. But its design must additionally solve another problem - to provide the operator with free access to the washable surface. Since the high pressure hose itself is very badly bent, the gun should have a rotating head to direct the water jet to the right place - ideally, it should have complete freedom in all planes.
There are two options for implementing this feature. The first option is when there is a special tank in the sink itself, into which detergent is poured. It is metered fed and mixed with water flying out of the gun.
The second option is when water is mixed with detergents at the time of its exit from the washing gun, for which is attached to the last special tank with a nozzle. Mixed with water, the detergent provides abundant foam, which greatly simplifies the entire washing process. If there is a need to use detergents, it is necessary to select devices with this function. Photos of this nozzle see in the last section of the article.
This is the first link in the entire device that is responsible for supplying water to it. Depending on the type of washing, the hose is connected to the water supply, or lowered into any suitable container (barrel, tank, etc.). If this is the first option, then to prevent a backlash, at the time of peak pressure build-up, a check valve is installed on the hose. It does not allow the water from the sink to "push" back into the water supply. In some cases, such a valve is placed when water is taken from open containers.
Devices with the ability to take water from tanks are more versatile and can be used in any conditions, regardless of whether there is running water or not.
Increased water pressure imposes certain restrictions on the uninterrupted work time of any wash - household or professional. Usually it is 20 minutes, after which the equipment must be turned off “to rest” - the observance of this time is monitored and the Total Stop system is monitored, combined with other protective sensors. Literally, the name of the function can be translated as “full stop.”
The standard nozzle for high-pressure washing is usually a fan-shaped, creating a flat stream of water. With such directivity it is convenient to wash both small parts and large surfaces, including garden paths.
The next most popular is the so-called “mud cutter”, which creates a rotating fluid flow that well removes even dried dirt.
With frequent work with old, difficult to remove contaminants, it is possible to acquire and a hydro-sand jet nozzle, which together with water ejects sand particles, which significantly increases the cleaning efficiency.
Using current-carrying wires at the sink automatically imposes certain requirements for their protection from moisture.In addition to moisture-proof shielding of wires, sockets to which the sink is connected must have a protection class ensuring their functioning when they are doused with a direct flow of water (anything can happen). Also mandatory is the grounding of the line.
The case of a high-pressure cleaner should protect the electric motor and its contacts from splashes and direct jets of water, but at the same time allow sufficient air to cool. If a mobile wash is purchased, the device should allow easy carrying of the entire device.
Initially, high-pressure washers were intended for cleaning surfaces in a non-contact manner — that is, simply with a stream of water supplied with a large head. After washing became available to a wide range of users, manufacturers began to equip washing guns with various nozzles in order to increase their capabilities. Some of them change the shape of the water jet, while others are additionally equipped with brushes with bristles of various lengths and rigidity - this allows combining the effectiveness of contactless cleaning with the ability to scrub dirt in a contact way or to foam detergents.
Bristles are commonly used in two types of stiffness - with a soft bristle, for smooth surfaces and hard, which are convenient for cleaning dirt from places with a rough surface. Also, hard brushes are used to clean shovels and similar garden tools, which are not afraid of scratching. The location of the brush can be arbitrary - along the handle or across, like a mop.
The handles for the brush nozzles are used in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, allowing you to get to the most hard-to-reach places with a brush. The most budgetary solution is still the usual "stick", but you can always pick up a telescopic or movable one, in which the angle of the bend of the handle changes. For quick replacement of nozzles, they are standardly equipped with a bayonet connector.
Different types of nozzles are more convenient to use for certain types of pollution. The main difference between the two is the shape of the brushes and the water flow created.
1. With a rotating head that rotates due to the pressure of the water jet . It can be combined with a nozzle of the "water mill" type - as a result, a double cleaning mechanism is obtained: the water jet “breaks” the dirt, and the brush cleans its remnants. When using a hard pile, it is ideal for cleaning garden paths, and a soft sponge brush will gently clean the car body or glass.
2. Nozzle with a nozzle and an additional tank for detergent . Designed specifically for beating and applying foam to the surface - after softening the dirt, other nozzles are used to clean it.
3. Sponge nozzle - for washing windows or easy cleaning the car body in case of light pollution . The nozzle can be used to apply foam or grind detergents, and after water supply, the brush itself erases this foam.
4. A mop head that cleans the dirt with stiff bristles through which water flows. If the surface is scratch resistant, the use of such a nozzle will greatly speed up and facilitate the cleaning process.
5. Nozzle-cone with a rotating brush head - the main purpose is to clean the bolt holes of the rims or similar hard-to-reach places.
It must be remembered that there are no universal brushes and nozzles, so it is advisable to imagine where the high-pressure washer will be used. This will help to get the necessary components for it, without spending additional funds on equipment that will gather dust in the warehouse.