Today you can buy wallpapers for every taste and wallet - and for a luxurious country mansion and for a modest Khrushchev. However, a rich choice does not mean facilitating the purchase process. A person standing in a shop in front of this abundance of materials for wall decoration, immediately raises many questions. What, with the exception of colors, some wallpaper is different from others? Which wallpapers are better - vinyl, non-woven or paper? How not to make a mistake with the choice? The answer is obvious - you need to get at least a general idea of modern wallpaper, and only then, armed with knowledge, to go to the store.
Paper wallpapers can be safely called classic wallcoverings. There is an opinion that they are morally obsolete and are no longer interesting to anyone. However, statistics say the opposite: paper wallpapers are still in demand. And it is not surprising, because the word "classic" is primarily associated with the quality, proven for centuries.
Cellulose is the basis of paper wallpaper, which determines all their advantages and disadvantages: low moisture resistance and insufficient strength, but at the same time high air and vapor permeability and relatively low price. There are two types of paper wallpaper - single-layer (or simplex) and double-layer (or duplex). The latter are stronger and more durable, and it is much easier to glue them. Washable paper wallpaper is usually made on the basis of a simplex, which is covered with a layer of decorative varnish.
Non-woven wallpaper is a close relative and worthy competitor of paper. Flizelin - nonwoven material from the pressed natural (cellulose) and synthetic (most often polyester) fibers. It has all the advantages of paper (high environmental friendliness, air and vapor permeability) and at the same time it is largely devoid of its shortcomings (in particular, non-woven wallpapers are practically not deformed when moistened, have greater strength and durability than paper). More often non-woven wallpaper is used as a relief base for painting, but if you wish, you can choose a coating with an already applied color background and pattern.
Vinyl wallpaper is a kind of wallpaper whose protective and decorative coating is a layer of polyvinyl chloride (in everyday life often called just vinyl). As a basis for the polymer film can be used either paper or non-woven. The top layer of this two-layer cake determines the performance of the wallpaper, the bottom holds the canvas on the wall. Polyvinyl chloride is not afraid of water, organic solvents, or aggressive chemical compounds. It is resistant to mechanical stress, durable and durable.
There are several varieties of vinyl wallpaper, which differ in the method of applying a PVC layer and, as a result, properties:
1. Vinyl vinyl wallpaper is obtained by heat treatment of polyvinyl chloride that has already been applied to the substrate, which foams as a result, and the surface of the wallpaper becomes a distinct relief. Distinctive features of such wallpaper in addition to noticeable roughness are soft texture, large thickness, which allows to hide the irregularities of the wall, and relatively low density.
2. Flat vinyl (or hot stamping) wallpaper is also produced at high temperatures. On the base - paper or non-woven fiber - uniformly apply a layer of PVC mass, then the pattern is “rolled”, and then a hot stamping stage follows, as a result of which a unique wallpaper fabric is created. This wallpaper is the most popular because it has a very high strength and moisture resistance, a wealth of available colors and patterns. The so-called silk-screen printing (wallpaper imitating silk fabric) also belongs to this type.
We all want to feel safe in our own home. Among other things, this means that the building and finishing materials used in carrying out repairs should not conceal the hidden threat to the health of you and your household. What in this regard should be expected from a particular type of wallpaper? Which wallpapers are more environmentally friendly - vinyl, non-woven or paper?
Paper wallpapers are, of course, flawless from an environmental point of view, and this is one of their main advantages. The probability of release of toxic or potentially allergenic substances from flizelin, which is based on the fibers of the same cellulose, is also practically reduced to zero.
But vinyl wallpapers may not be as harmless as their competitors. If low-quality polyvinyl chloride was used in their production, then it is possible to release a number of substances harmful to health, primarily the original vinyl chloride.Of course, the amount of unreacted monomer and other impurities in the polymer film is negligible, but it should not be forgotten that the area of the walls covered with wallpaper in the apartment is quite large.
At first, after pasting the wallpaper, when the concentration of these substances in the room air is maximum, their presence can be determined even by smell. Branded materials for organoleptic indicators differ for the better, but they are much more expensive. But even if you bought the most expensive vinyl wallpaper, which according to the certificate meets all sanitary and hygienic requirements, it is better to refrain from using them in long-stay premises, for example, in bedrooms or children's rooms.
The danger potential of vinyl wallpaper is higher than that of paper and non-woven, which are materials of high environmental quality.
The humidity of the air inside and outside the room is usually different. If there is a difference in the partial pressure of water vapor from different sides of the partition, it will move in the direction of reduced pressure, i.e. low humidity, and a concrete or brick wall will not become an insurmountable obstacle for it.
Different materials have different vapor permeability. However, at the moment we are only interested in wallpapers. What can you say about their ability to pass water vapor? Paper and interlining, due to its fibrous structure, have excellent air and vapor permeability. But the polyvinyl chloride film almost tightly seals the pores in the substrate, preventing the penetration of water molecules into the wall. Vinyl foam wallpapers have a slightly better vapor permeability, but they also can not be compared with paper and non-woven.
What does this mean in practice? When comparing the vapor permeability of various materials used for pasting walls, many begin to talk about changing the microclimate in the room. However, it should be said that the amount of steam passing through the wall, from whatever material it was made and whatever wallpaper was pasted over, is incomparable to the air transferred during its free exchange. In other words, the indoor climate is determined not so much by the vapor permeability of the wall materials, as by the quality of ventilation. If the air circulation is absent, then no "breathing" wallpaper will not help.
There is, however, another aspect of the issue under consideration. In some cases, the walls of residential houses are rather strongly moistened, and there may be several reasons for this phenomenon. On the first floors it can be a neighborhood with a raw basement, on the last - a neighborhood with a poorly waterproof roof. The walls may dampen due to poor external insulation, which leads to condensation of water vapor directly inside the wall.
If a wet wall is covered with a material with good vapor permeability (in our case, paper or non-woven wallpaper), it can theoretically be dried, creating indoor conditions suitable for this. If the coating is vapor proof (vinyl wallpaper), it is almost impossible to do so. As a result, an ideal environment for the growth of mold or mildew will be created under such wallpaper.
The permeability of vinyl wallpaper is significantly lower than that of paper and non-woven.
It is not in vain that repairs are compared with several fires or floods. When it finally ends (or is it suspended?), We happily sigh and solemnly assure that more of our good will never and for anything. .. That is why we all really want the fruits of our labors, including the wallpaper, to serve us as long as possible. What types of wallpaper have better durability? Which over the years will not lose the brightness of colors and its original attractiveness? . Some manufacturers cover their wallpaper with special compositions designed to increase their moisture and light resistance. However, even after such protection they will serve you not for too long.
Non-woven wallpaper is also not much more resistant than paper to moisture and mechanical stress - in "hard" conditions of operation, their top layer quickly becomes unusable. On the sensitivity of non-woven fabric, we usually do not speak, since, as a rule, they are not initially distinguished by the brightness of colors.
But the vinyl wallpaper is not afraid of either the sun, or water, or physical impact. The polymer coating (with the exception of foamed PVC) has increased strength and resistance to mechanical damage. The film will not be erased even in places of constant contact with furniture or outerwear.Thanks to the excellent mechanical qualities of polyvinyl chloride, wallpaper from it is often glued in places with the highest maneuverability, for example, in hallways. In addition, they are easy to wash, are not afraid of aggressive detergents and do not fade in the sun.
As a quantitative assessment of the "vitality" of various types of wallpaper can serve their lifespan, declared by manufacturers. In the case of paper wallpaper manufacturers ensure their flawless operation for 4-5 years. In the case of non-woven wallpaper, this figure increases to 8-10 years. In both cases, the guarantee requires compliance with the prescribed operating conditions, namely protection against moisture and mechanical damage. Vinyl wallpapers have a slightly longer lifespan - 10-12 years (for a series of wallpapers, more often elite, some manufacturers claim a 20-year warranty), but at the same time, operational limitations are much softer and less so.
Vinyl wallpapers will last you longer without losing the original appeal.
One awkward movement and. .. on the brand new wallpaper "flaunts" the stain. The likelihood of such an incident is especially great in the kitchen or in the hallway. And now what i can do? "admire" the result of their carelessness until the next repair? If the wall is covered with paper or non-woven wallpaper, then, alas, yes. Their porous structure facilitates the fast and durable absorption of any dirt. And since paper and non-woven fabrics possess not only high porosity, but also relatively low moisture resistance, it is impossible to wash them, with rare exceptions.
But vinyl wallpapers come out of such situations as winners. Dirt in their smooth polymer coating is practically not absorbed. In addition, vinyl is a moisture-resistant material, which means that it can be washed if necessary, not only with water, but also with detergents that do not contain chlorine and abrasive particles.
Vinyl wallpapers are easy to clean: they are lightly soiled and easy to clean. On paper and non-woven wallpaper to say this, unfortunately, is impossible.
The hygroscopicity and moisture resistance of the wallpaper not only regulates the restrictions on their wet cleaning, but also determines the possibility of using this material in a particular room. Hypersensitivity to moisture of paper and non-woven wallpaper limits their use to dry air spaces, such as bedrooms or living rooms.
For some of them, treated with a special compound, these restrictions are not so hard - they can be successfully used, for example, in the kitchen. But even this “washable” paper does not have a place near the shower or sink - it will quickly become worthless. Vinyl wallpaper, being non-hygroscopic and moisture-proof, is not afraid of damp either in the form of steam or in the form of water splashes, which is why it is recommended to use them for decoration of bathrooms, bathrooms, kitchens.
Only vinyl wallpapers are truly moisture-proof, so they can be used to finish wet rooms and, if necessary, wash them with water.
The walls in our houses (even in new buildings, let alone the old housing stock) rarely have any flaws. Ideally, before wallpapering, they should be leveled, smoothing all the bulges and depressions, filling up all the cracks and gouges. But what to do if your budget is limited or the time allotted for repairs, is rapidly coming to an end? What wallpapers will help to hide the fact that you missed this preparatory stage of work?
The ideal option in this case would be thick vinyl wallpapers. It is not recommended to use vinyl with a smooth glossy surface on uneven walls, since it will only increase the visibility of defects, show them off. But the foam vinyl will fit like nothing better: it has good relief and dullness, which allows you to successfully "hide" problem areas.
You can use a cheaper option for the price - two-layer paper wallpaper. They are denser than single-layer ones and often also have a convex embossing, which means that our goal will be achieved to one degree or another.
But non-woven wallpaper on the walls of poor quality is not recommended to glue. Often they turn out to be too transparent, and through them spots are visible - unevenness of the background color of the draft wall. But, in principle, these wallpapers are designed for painting, and a layer of water emulsion helps to hide the defect, especially if you choose the right color.
In general, in this situation, you need to follow a few simple rules that will easily help to hide minor defects of the wall:
The palm of superiority in its ability to hide minor irregularities and defects of walls belongs to foam vinyl wallpaper. Worse, but still coping with this task and duplex paper wallpaper, and non-woven wallpaper for painting.
It is not very easy to glue single-layer paper wallpapers. Thin paper, soaked after applying glue, strives to tear and is hardly smoothed on the wall, forming bubbles and creases. After drying, it sits, often exposing the joints between the canvases. Two-layer under the action of glue is practically not soaked, therefore they are not deformed, and it is easier to fix them on the surface.
For those who have had the experience of wrapping walls with paper wallpaper, working with non-woven will seem to be much easier. The glue here is applied only to the wall, after which the absolutely dry canvas is simply applied to the surface and smoothed out - joining the two bands is not difficult. The material is almost not stretched and not deformed. In addition, it is stronger than paper, which means that you will not be afraid to tear it, at some point pulling the canvas too hard.
There is another feature of non-woven wallpaper that some attribute to advantages, others to drawbacks: their width is twice the standard width of paper rolls (106 cm instead of 53 cm). The greater width of the canvas means fewer joints, and this, firstly, improves the aesthetic appearance of the pasted wall, and secondly, it speeds up the process, especially in the case when you have to dock the drawing. But to glue wide canvases alone is more difficult than narrow ones - it is better to find a partner at this stage of finishing and repair work.
Vinyl wallpaper, when comparing the complexity of the process of pasting walls, is intermediate between paper and non-woven. Depending on the basis, the glue is applied either only on the wall, which greatly facilitates the work, or on the canvas. The width of the rolls of vinyl wallpaper (with all the pluses and minuses arising from this) varies depending on the substrate: on non-woven base - wide format, on paper - narrow.
The main disadvantage of vinyl is the increased density compared to paper and non-woven fabric and, consequently, mass. This implies more stringent requirements for adhesive composition - it must be sufficiently viscous to hold a heavy canvas on the wall.
It is easier to glue walls with non-woven wallpaper than vinyl. Paper is also an outsider in this ranking.
Today, people are less and less likely to choose low-key wallpapers, realizing that this is not just a background for furniture, but one of the style components of the interior.
Paper wallpapers are highly decorative. They are applied a variety of patterns and patterns, and to give the volume used all sorts of embossing. The relief pattern is created using paste-like paints, smooth - using liquid formulations. As a result of using different technologies, the coating may turn out to be similar to velor, silk or decorative plaster.
Vinyl coating also creates space for creativity. It allows you to simulate a variety of textures (including fabric, leather, suede, silk) and reproduce any colors and patterns. The palette of colors available is striking in its richness: today there are more than a hundred monochromatic colors produced on wallpapers, and it is almost impossible to count various variations with drawings, ornaments and patterns.
Against the background of paper and vinyl wallpaper, non-woven look quite modest. With their help, it is difficult to achieve reliable imitation of various materials. But the pattern on the non-woven fabric turns out to be deeper: the producers manage to add volume to the image by mixing pre-dyed fibers. Varying the density of the paint allows you to achieve a variety of visual effects.
Vinyl wallpapers allow you to put into practice the most diverse designs of interior designers. Paper only slightly behind them in their decorative properties.
Two or three decades ago, it never occurred to anyone of us that wallpaper could be painted. Meanwhile, this simple solution allows you to achieve two goals at once. First, no matter how diverse the range of wallpapers on the market is, there are always people who want something different, something that is not on the store counter, and painting helps to put their design ideas into practice.Secondly, over time, even the most beautiful wallpapers get bored, a desire to refresh the interior a little appears, and here again the roller and bucket with water-based paint come to the rescue, which provide an invaluable opportunity to change the color of the walls with minimal effort and money.
The most suitable base for painting is flizelin. It is sufficiently dense and has a pronounced relief, which facilitates the retention of a thick layer of water emulsion. Often, such non-woven wallpaper release unpainted, because initially it is assumed that the next stage after pasting the walls will be painting work. Less common are color, as a rule, warm pastel shades.
Painting vinyl wallpaper is also possible, but the requirement of a rough textured surface narrows the range of materials to foam polyvinyl chloride wallpaper. There is another limitation - the original color should be light and solid. Bright wallpaper is not always possible to successfully repaint due to the high intensity of the original colors.
Suitable as a base for painting and paper wallpaper with embossed texture. They have a greater than normal thickness and density, so that when applied paint they practically do not deform. These wallpapers are impregnated with a special water-repellent composition that allows the material to maintain its water resistance even after applying several layers of paint.
Experienced craftsmen say that with each new layer of paint, the relief of the wallpaper becomes more pronounced. However, you should not get too involved - it is not recommended to repaint them more than 8-10 times (in some cases 12-15 times). In principle, this is more than enough - a rare person without pathologies changes the interior of his home more than once a year.
Among the wallpapers intended for painting there are non-woven, vinyl, and even paper, but the former are more common.
When choosing wallpaper, you should not only be guided by the host , but also on the appointment of the premises, the walls of which are planned to be plastered.
The walls of the hallway are the most vulnerable. Coming from the street, we bring with us dust and dirt, undressing, often we touch the walls of our outer clothing, razuvayas, often lean on the walls to maintain balance. We leave a lot of objects in the corridor - bags, skis, bicycles, roller skates - the neighborhood with them does not always turn out to be a traceless for wallpaper.
Not every wall covering can withstand such harsh operating conditions. Therefore, wallpaper for the hallway should be durable, resistant to abrasion, allowing intensive wet cleaning. Hot stamping vinyl wallpapers satisfy this tough requirement. But the wallpaper of foamed vinyl for the hallway does not fit: their porous structure will be clogged with dirt. Paper and non-woven for the corridor are also not suitable, unless, of course, you want to update them regularly.
The kitchen is another problem room. Constant fluctuations in temperature, steam, swirling over boiling pots, soot, every now and then flying in different directions spray. .. In addition, the kitchen is considered a place of high terrain, which means that the probability that someone accidentally tears or accidentally scratches the wallpaper is higher here than in living rooms.
When looking for a wall covering for such a room, first of all you should pay attention to the wallpaper of solid vinyl. They are quite durable, and, in addition, they are easily removed pollution, the usual kitchen. It is not advisable to glue the kitchen with paper or non-woven wallpaper, or wallpaper made of foam vinyl - they simply will not withstand such operating conditions and will quickly become unusable.
When choosing wallpaper for a living room, you can finally forget about practicality and think about beauty. You can give preference to foam vinyl or silk-screen printing, and you can glue the cheaper, but from this no less aesthetically attractive paper wallpaper. And if you want something exclusive, stop your choice on non-woven wallpaper for painting.
In the bedroom, we spend a lot of time gathering strength before the new working day, so the choice of wallpaper for this room must be approached with all responsibility. The surface of the walls here is not subject to mechanical stress, which means that there is no particular need for durable wallpaper. Prefer eco-friendly, as close as possible to natural materials - paper or non-woven fabric.
The main requirement for materials for finishing a children's room is harmlessness. The kid spends most of his time here, and he will get all the microdegradation of toxic and allergenic substances, exuded by poor-quality wallpaper.But he will definitely want to taste this beauty. Paper or non-woven wallpaper, safe for children, will be ideal for a nursery.
And the preference is better to give the first. The kid will inevitably paint them with felt-tip pens, smear with clay, check the coating for durability. And if unpretentious and inexpensive wallpaper will suffer from such “creativity”, parents will relate to it without undue tragedy. And when the child grows up, you will choose something more refined with it.