Timber is produced by cutting wood into separate parts - plates, quarters, bars and bars, boards, slab. Types of lumber differ a great variety.
Classification of sawn timber by appearance and processing method.
The thickness of boards manufactured under production conditions can be no more than 100 mm, the width of the width is greater than the thickness multiplied by two. The bars have a thickness of not more than 100 mm, the width must be less than twice the thickness.
According to the method chosen for processing raw materials, lumber is divided into unedged and edged. For the latter, processing from four sides is typical; on the faces and edges, browns on the values should be allowed only certain products that are in accordance with the grade of the product. Obzol is the part of the surface of the log that has been preserved on the part after the mechanical trimming. It turns out untreated around the edges of a piece of board, which can be used in architectural structures or for carpentry decoration of buildings.
Uncut timber is edged, part sawn off or not sawn at all. For one-sided products, there is one edge and sawn edges, while on a sawn lump, a wane is not allowed, which is larger in magnitude than the parameters acceptable for a particular product. This type is used in construction a little less. It can be used for covering various parts of the structure, making the flooring, other options are possible.
Types of sawn timber and cutting logs.
Depending on the processing method, materials may be called unmilled or milled, that is, planed. The latter are material in which at least one of the cavities is ostraganized. In order to produce planed timber, wood is taken only with a certain diameter, so that the blanks for the timber are formed with the right size. Billets need to be dried - this is done using steam chambers or in natural conditions. Products are obtained by processing raw materials on machine tools.
When processing wood using modern technologies, different types of products are performed. The range includes bars and sleepers, boards and slats, quarters, slabs, plates and other products. Types of lumber may vary depending on how to work with raw materials. You can learn more about them.
Timber, depending on the number of sides to be machined, will be called two-sided, three-sided, four-sided. The thickness and width of products is, as a rule, more than 100 mm. The main sphere of their use is the construction of supporting structures, cottages or cottages, since these products can perfectly withstand considerable loads.
A bar looks like a bar, but it has other dimensions. It is carried out with thickness up to 100 mm, width - less than double thickness. It is used in the furniture and carpentry industries, for finishing buildings, for example, door frames and crossbars are made of them.
Table of shrinkage factors and mechanical strength of lumber.
Boards are made of logs or bars of sufficient thickness. Boards are uncircumcised or trimmed. Thickness is possible no more than 100 mm, width - more than double thickness. Application - wall decoration, arrangement of floors, furniture production.
Sleeper is a product with a small length, but wide and thick. This is in some way a kind of timber, in which the size of the cross section differs in size. The most frequent application is for the execution of railroad tracks.
A croaker is a piece of log, a side drank. In the process of sawing logs on a variety of boards, waste is obtained, which is called slab. It is convenient to make temporary constructions like barns out of it, and they will also be suitable for the construction of a batten under the roof.
Quarters (obapol) also obtained from the side of the logs. One of the surfaces of the product is propylene, the other is not. Convenient to use for the manufacture of small joinery.
The plate is half the log, which is produced when it is cut in the center. The plates have only one straight side. The length depends on the log used as raw material. Used mainly for the production of the above products - sleepers, beams, sometimes - for the manufacture of solid boards.
For lumber, grading will also depend on the tree species - they may be a hardwood or softwood.
Conifers include larch, spruce, pine, cedar, fir. Hardwood - oak, birch, beech, aspen, poplar, maple.For the construction of buildings often choose conifers because they are little exposed to moisture, easier to process, have good hardness and are quite durable. They can be used to create load-bearing structures. But it should be borne in mind that the conifers in its composition have a lot of resinous substances, which means that any types of sawn timber created from them, faster and easier to burn.
Spruce wood is particularly popular. In its composition is also the smallest amount of resin, therefore, reduced susceptibility to fire. Among the hardwoods, oak has become very common - it is very strong and durable. Timber can be divided into four grades. Thus, the selected variety is used in the manufacture of parts in shipbuilding, with the lathing of automobile sides, in other significant areas.
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