The cabinetry profession has always been sought-after and prestigious. Today, the ability to make beautiful wood carvings can be not only a great way to earn good money, but also an exciting hobby. But in order for woodcarving to bring joy and not be burdensome, a special tool is needed.
All tools for carving should be made of good steel.
To date, the cabinetry tool kit should contain tools for the following types of work:
In order to have an idea how the tree is processed, it is necessary to consider each of the tools in more detail.
Usually, all types of fixtures designed for working on wooden surfaces are called chisels. This could include all cutting blades, saws, axes, chisels, special planers, and more. Each of the tools is designed for a specific type of processing wooden workpiece.
Each cabinet-maker individually selects a tool suitable for his needs and tastes. But if a person has no experience in wood processing and is just beginning to engage in this type of activity, it is advisable to adhere to the recommendations of knowledgeable craftsmen.
Cutters for turning wood.
The manufacture of any piece of wood begins with cutting the blank. Wood cutters are sharp blades, usually forming chips or sawdust in the process. When machining wooden surfaces using the manual method, saws, jointer beams, one-handed planers, etc. are used. These are tools that allow you to work by yourself. That is, the movement of the master's hand goes to the side opposite to the body.
In many foreign countries, wood processing is carried out by the “on itself” method, when the direction of movement is carried out towards the master's body. As a rule, for this purpose, tools specially made for this method of work are used - hacksaws, saws, etc. These are double-sided cutters, two-handed strugi and spoon cutters.
It must be remembered that many devices, such as chisels or knives, are extremely undesirable to cut: this can lead to serious injury.
Another rule used by cabinetmakers is also known: if a large wooden surface is required to be processed, the method “from oneself” is used, during which work is facilitated by the energy of a moving ax, saw or planer. It does not suit such a cutter, like an ad, which work only on the "on itself" method, using the movements of the hand.
In order to saw off a tree, multi-tools, commonly called saws, are commonly used. They, in turn, can be longitudinal, transverse or universal sawing. So, saws, designed for cross-cutting, have sharp triangular-shaped teeth, each of which consists of two faces for the thread to the right or left. Chisels are equipped with chisel-shaped teeth. This form allows the teeth to accumulate among themselves sawdust and take them out of the body of wood. Multi-purpose saws have teeth in the form of a right angle, which are able to cut fibers both across, and along and at an angle.
Each type of saw is divided into the following types:
Mechanical saws are band, two-handed, gasoline and circular.
Usually, sawing up of the workpiece occurs with the help of cross-cutting saws, rolling out with one-handed or two-handed sawing, and processing with hacksaws, circular or luchkovye. Saws with large chisels are used for rough woodwork, fine-toothed saws for precise processing.
Axes: a - Carpenter; b - Joiner; c - Rezcicki; d - Cleaver; e - Tesla for sampling recesses; e - Tesla for sculptural carving.
The following types of wood cutters are used for making blanks from bars, ridges or trunks: axes and axes. A cleaver is a heavy ax that is used when cutting logs are necessary. Together with the cleaver, metal or wooden wedges are used, which are driven into the body of wood and thus facilitate its splitting. Already made blanks are hewn using household (carpentry) light axes, which are conveniently worn on a belt in special cases.
To cut the surface of a wooden workpiece, an adze is used - a type of ax in which the blade is perpendicular to the ax handle.This is a necessary cutter for the manufacture of concave or shaped products. If necessary, the adze can be made with your own hands from a thick steel plate with a sharply sharpened and curved edge.
Planing tool for woodworking.
Planing is called cutting thin layers of chips from the wood surface. This process requires the use of hand-held or turning cutters of the following type: knives, two-handed pliers with straight or semi-circular blades, planes, and sherhebel. Finishing planing is usually done by planes with a single or double blade, fixed in the body of metal or wood. The chip thickness depends entirely on how far the blade or body is extended. The smaller the distance, the thinner the wood chips.
For the manufacture of curves or rounded parts, which may be, for example, riveting for the barrel, special planers are used, having the form of a convex knife. For workpieces concave across the plane, humpback planes are used. There are also planers for the manufacture of edges and narrow grooves for panels or boards.
Chisels are the most popular type of wood cutters. Usually for cutting wood, devices are used, which are rods of steel, having a flat surface, a sharp cutting blade and a shank. The shank is mounted on a wooden handle with a ring.
Cutting tools for carving.
Each type of chisel has its own purpose. So, straight and wide fixtures are used for stripping or cutting convex or even workpieces. Narrow tools designed for processing wood in narrow places of parts. For working with hardwood or horny knots, straight chisels with round blades are used. If you want to clean the tree with a hollow or deep cavity, use a chisel-chisel that has a thick steel rod. In addition, the necessary tool in this case will serve as a mallet, with which the chisel will be driven deep into the wood.
Chisels very well to clean wood from unnecessary fractions, but the main purpose of these tools is to cut complex products. To create a variety of grooves in the body of the wood, cranberries are needed - chisels with curved or grooved blades. They allow you to create a deepening of the desired radius and depth. Initially, the hole is cut by the widest cranberry, then smaller cranberry is used, then smaller, etc. With this tool, triangular grooves and grooves are cut, most often used for flat-carving.
In addition to all the described tools, the wood-cutting master also uses other equipment. For example, volumetric cutting, used in the manufacture of works of art, requires the use of spoon cutters. Such tools developed centuries ago. The design of the cutters allows you to use them "on yourself" both along and across the wood fibers.
As often as a spoon device, a double-sided cutter in the shape of the letter “T” is used. This tool is usually processed blanks for products of large sizes. Spoon-type incisors are used to cut out wooden circles, from which plates can be made, other objects of dishes and much more.
The success of the work of both a woodcarving amateur and a professional largely depends on the quality of the tool. That is why it is necessary to first acquire all the necessary devices, and only then get down to work.