In order for the roof to serve as long as possible and fully fulfill all the duties assigned to it, it is necessary, among other things, to correctly assemble the roof system. This can be done by hand. However, before starting the main stage of work, it is necessary to decide on the type of roof and the system of the rafter itself, to select a suitable and high-quality material, and also to make a plan in accordance with which the truss system will be built.
Types of roof truss systems.
The type of system depends on the shape of the roof of the house. At the design stage, the features of the entire system and the design of the roof in particular should be generally taken into account. After preparation and fixing of individual elements, the truss system is mounted directly. This work involves the implementation of many technological steps. Doing everything according to the instructions, you will not encounter any significant problems, and the finished roof system for the roof of your house will be of the highest quality.
When drafting a project, it is necessary to take into account the type of house roofing. For each type of roof, an individual truss system is prepared. For example, the system of rafters for a mansard roof will be absolutely not the same as the system for hip roof. Therefore, when working independently, it is necessary to take into account these factors.
However, there are a number of requirements that are universal for a roof of any type. When designing the roof system and the roof itself, consider the following important points:
Schematic of the roof system of the hip roof.
The rafter system should be made of high quality and durable wood. It is important that the procurement, drying and storage of material is carried out in accordance with the rules. It is best to use resinous bars. The pitch is a natural antiseptic, so the wood will be under additional protection, and the finished truss system will last as long as possible.
If the roof of your house is hip, the rafters should have a different section. The strongest rafters should be installed where several bars are connected. When choosing a material for end rafters, you need to be especially careful. The junction between the planes often becomes one of the main problem areas. Such areas are characterized by the lowest strength in the entire system and can give a leak.
Rifle attachment points.
To build a reliable truss system, you need to use a sufficiently thick timber. Suitable material section 10x20 cm, 10x10 cm, 20x20 cm, etc. Where the rafters must have a particularly high strength, for example, if the design requires the presence of stitching rafters, beams need to be spliced. It is best to use a timber with a length of 400-600 cm. An already-aged timber is best suited for rafters. This ensures that the wood does not change in size after the construction of the roof.
Before embarking on rafters and waterproofing, be sure to consider such things as protecting wood from fire and pests. First, the timber should be impregnated with antipyretic agents. Such treatment leads to a decrease in the flammability of wood. Secondly, the material is compulsorily processed by antiseptic compounds, due to which its rotting will be prevented.
These measures should be taken well before the final installation of the truss system. So you can consistently process each element of the structure, paying particular attention to those that may be damaged in the future. Pay special attention to the joints. It is most convenient to apply protective compounds with a brush. Use a fairly wide tool with a long nap. Do not forget about personal protection. Be sure to wear gloves, a respirator and safety glasses.
Protective compositions are recommended to be applied in a double layer. The wood must dry before processing. You can, of course, not wait for complete drying. But if you want the material to soak up as much as possible and serve as long as possible, take your time and let it dry completely before applying the next layer. Installation of the roof system for roofing can be started only after the protective equipment is well absorbed and the material dries out completely.
Schemes of systems for gable roofs.
In the process of performing this work, you will need a few simple tools that do not require special skills and training, namely:
The procedure for installing a rafter system for a house with your own hands is as follows. First, the installation is done. It is a timber that serves as the basis for the truss system. Lay the material on top of the walls around the perimeter of the building. Special mounts are applied. They must be installed in increments of up to 1-1.2 m. To further increase the moisture-proof properties under the mauerlat, it is necessary to put roofing material. You can use other convenient waterproofing materials.
The beam is laid next to the studs. Marked places to create holes. After all necessary holes have been drilled, the studs should be threaded into the power plate. This must be done in such a way that the studs protrude slightly. There is no need to make a large protrusion, several millimeters will be enough. Mauerlat is additionally fixed with washers and nuts. After completing the fixing of the power plate, you can proceed to the next stage of work, where you have to fasten the rafters with the mounted power plate.
Scheme of hanging truss systems with a raised tightening.
The rafter leg is set to a suitable position and fixed to the power plate. For this, galvanized steel brackets are used. Additionally, prepare the mounting brackets and screws.
The bracket will prevent the rafters located along the power plate from moving. The staple is also designed to prevent their movement. By the same principle, with the use of brackets, installation of rafters to the ridge part of the roof is carried out. In order to strengthen and mount the ridge of the roof, you can use the rail. It should be connected with the opposite rafters in the form of the letter "A".
Studs can also be used to maximize reliable connection of rafters to each other. Studs of at least 8 mm are suitable for this work, if ondulin and other non-heavy roofing materials are used for the roof. If you choose ceramic tiles and other heavy materials, you should use longer studs, from 10-12 mm.
To prevent the rafters from moving, it is better to use 2 studs at once on one mounting point.
In some cases it may be necessary to lengthen the beam. If such a situation arises, overlap the boards using high-strength studs with a diameter of at least 1 cm. 2> The scheme of fastening rafters to the power plate.
Sometimes situations arise when the length of the rafters is not enough. This usually happens when building a T-shaped roof. But it can happen in other circumstances.
In such cases, in order to prevent or even completely eliminate sagging of the roof covering in length under its own weight or weight of precipitation, it is necessary to thoroughly work to strengthen the roof. It is better to do everything right and conscientiously. Intention to correct defects “sometime later” in the future may lead to problems that will require much more substantial time, money and effort.
To correct this problem, you can resort to one of two available methods. In accordance with the first of them, a run is installed in the middle of the truss system, due to which the load will be evenly distributed. Or you can resort to another method. In accordance with it, installation of additional transverse beams is carried out and spacers are installed. Thanks to this system, all incoming load will be distributed quite effectively.
The second method of load distribution is more practical and efficient. That it is most often used in the construction of mansard roofs.
After the installation, all the rafters on the roof should be trimmed. Cut them to the level of the eaves. After that, in case of such need, it will be possible to perform waterproofing works.
Thus, there are no particular problems in the independent arrangement of the truss system. Doing everything yourself, you get an excellent experience and save a lot of money on the services of third-party craftsmen. It is only necessary to follow the instructions in everything, to strictly follow the established requirements and rules, and you will certainly succeed in creating a durable and reliable roof system.Good luck!
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