Sealants used in construction are materials with which they eliminate all kinds of cracks and cracks. When filling voids with sealing compounds made on the basis of polymers, a dense layer is formed with a certain degree of elasticity. From this article you will learn about the properties that each sealant is endowed with for joints, and also get all the necessary information regarding the choice of material, based on the type of work performed.
The chemical composition of any sealant contains the main component, as well as special additives. To date, there are several base classes of such materials.
Silicone is used as the main active ingredient; its content is at least 45%. The layer applied on a surface keeps high elasticity even after final drying. Sealant has excellent adhesion properties with respect to a variety of materials, including ceramics, glass, non-oxidizing alloys. Differs in the increased moisture resistance thanks to what it can be applied when carrying out sanitary works.
With the help of such compounds, practically any joints and joints can be qualitatively sealed. Since the application of paint on silicone is not possible, in addition to transparent sealants, production of colored materials having various shades was established.
Today the following types of silicone compounds are produced:
General purpose sealants , in the manufacture of which silicone rubber is used together with hydrophobic filler. Both components are contained in almost equal proportions.
Sanitary sealant , the chemical composition of which includes special antifungal additives that prevent the formation of mold. This material is recommended to use in bathrooms and other rooms with high humidity.
Sealant for aquariums , the condition of which in the hardened form cannot be affected by the negative conditions of the biological environment. At the same time, the composition itself is absolutely safe from an environmental point of view.
Window Sealer , in which additives are present to ensure its maximum resistance to UV rays. In addition, individual components prevent the development of fungi and the formation of mold.
This type of sealant is based on acrylic resins that do not have a high degree of elasticity that does not allow to use them to fill voids in places of possible deformation of structural elements. However, when applied to a wooden surface, as well as concrete, brick or plaster, the material shows a fairly good adhesion.
In conditions of low ambient temperature, the sealing substance loses its properties, therefore it is recommended to use it exclusively for internal work. Acrylic paint can be applied on the dried layer of the sealant used for the joints, selected in accordance with the color of the surface.
Regardless of the distinctive characteristics of the degree of moisture resistance of such materials, constant contact with water is contraindicated for them.
In this case, low resistance to moisture, as the main disadvantage of acrylic compositions , has been eliminated by the addition of silicone. As a result, it turned out to create a combined material combining the properties of the two components.
The material is not afraid of high humidity and temperature changes, which allows it to be used for outdoor work. At the same time, the sealant is sufficiently resistant to deformation, and the seam formed after its application is obtained as elastic as possible.
Similar formulations are ideally suited to ensure tightness during the formation of minor voids in doorways. They can also be used to seal the seams in window frames, on plastered surfaces, between the elements of tiles or siding. Dyeing of the dried material with the use of oil or latex paints is allowed.
Sealants of this type have relatively high strength and elasticity. Compounds based on polyurethane are suitable for almost any type of work, since their adhesive properties guarantee a reliable coupling with concrete, ceramics, wood, metal and plastic products. At the same time, the material has a high resistance to moisture, and is also able to withstand considerable mechanical loads. Allowed its use in aggressive environments with weak acids and alkalis.
Polyurethane sealant may be stored exclusively in sealed packaging.Otherwise, when in contact with air, its properties will be quickly lost. When using the material indoors, it is necessary to comply with safety requirements, since in the process of its long-term drying, toxins are released. The finally hardened seam can be painted with the help of any paintwork.
These sealants are mainly used for roof repairs. The basis of the material is bitumen, which is present in the composition in combination with rubber. Shows excellent adhesion to various materials, so it can be used to eliminate joints not only in the roofing, but also in the foundation or drainage system.
Similar types of sealants for joints and cracks are able to withstand all sorts of atmospheric phenomena. They are not deformed by moisture and are not afraid of frost. However, the application of the composition to the surface and its drying is allowed only under positive temperature conditions.
The bituminous sealant, which has a well-defined purpose, has the following properties: other types of roofing materials;
Sealants of this type belong to highly specialized building materials. They are mainly used for waterproofing when processing elements of facades or roofing. It is allowed to use such composition in a room with high humidity.
The distinguishing properties of rubber-based sealants are:
Before you choose a sealant that will best meet the objectives , you need to take into account some points.
The level of adhesion depends both on the characteristics of the sealing agent and on the surface on which it is supposed to be applied. Therefore, it is necessary to find out for which surfaces the chosen sealant can be applied. In addition, it is imperative to consider a sealant suitable for interior or exterior use. The use of sealant designed for interior work, on the street, will lead to its rapid destruction. You should also pay attention to the humidity indicators at the place of application of the sealant.
When filling in the voids that are below the water level, it is necessary to select products designed for such conditions, which must necessarily be indicated in the annotation. If you intend to seal the aquarium, in this case, the value is not only the height of the water column, but also the total volume of the tank used. Despite the fact that most modern sealants are quite capable of withstanding abundant precipitation, only specialized materials can be in a constant environment of water.
In cases when exterior construction and repair work is carried out during the winter period, it is allowed to use sealing substances whose properties are not affected by freezing temperatures. In addition, such conditions imply the application of the composition to a wet or frozen surface. The characteristics of the chosen material should indicate this aspect.
For the finished joint, the temperature range within which the dried sealant is used is of great importance. Regarding the compositions intended for external use, this figure ranges from -35 to +80 degrees, which is quite acceptable for most Russian regions. In some cases, it is possible to use special-purpose materials with a permissible temperature interval from -60 to +200 degrees.
In addition, the degree of mobility of the seam must be considered. To fill the joints that are present in the roofing coatings, as well as the overall metal structures, it is recommended to choose a sealing substance that has a high elasticity and is not prone to deformation.
To date, white and transparent materials are predominantly produced. However, it is not uncommon to see gray, black or brown compounds on sale. If the intended color of the joint is not combined with the main shade of the surface, it makes sense to choose a painted sealant. For materials made on the basis of acrylic or acryl-silicone, oil or latex paints may well be applied.
In order to ensure that the sealant is used for the seams in the process of using, it should be repelled by the number and depth of those who need filling. voids. At the same time, the thickness of the applied layer can be reduced using a special sealing material, which is placed inside the gap.
With a relatively small amount of work, it is reasonable to purchase sealant in tubes. For processing a large area, it is more convenient to use material produced in tubes, which implies the presence of a pistol.
Currently, the most popular brands are Moment, Titan, Cerezit, and Bison. However, the market also offers a large number of products of lesser-known firms. At the same time, the cost range is quite wide. As for branded materials, which, undoubtedly, are of high quality, their price often initially included a big name, with the result that the consumer inevitably overcharges.
In cases with products submitted by an unknown manufacturer, it is possible to save a lot, but the risk of receiving goods that do not meet the stated characteristics increases. It should be noted that in most cases it is almost impossible to find any fundamental difference between such materials.
Regardless of the application, it is recommended to use only fresh sealant. When buying a tube or tube, you should pay attention to the date of manufacture of the material, which, together with the specified expiration date, must be present directly on the body. In this case, the method of its application is important - the figures must be spelled out with indelible paint or extruded.
Sometimes you can find products on sale with a date and time stamp on a paper sticker pasted on. This is a reason to seriously doubt the freshness of the goods offered by the seller.
The use of a sealing agent requires certain devices and aids.
There are manual mechanisms that set the piston in motion, which are mainly used in everyday life, as well as pneumatic and electrical devices, mainly demanded by professionals. The most affordable ones are handguns of open type.
However, in cases where the sealant is outside the tube, tubular devices or so-called closed guns are used.
Despite the fact that most of the work on filling the joints can only be done by moving the tube or tube, the final alignment of the sealant is more convenient with rubber or plastic trowel. In addition, there are special tools to form a beautiful seam sealant.
In order for the sealant not to remain on certain surface areas, it is recommended to resort to using masking tape, the strips of which are glued in places of the most probable accidental hit. material.
In cases where the composition still remained on the surface, it can be removed by one of two methods:
1. The mechanical method involves the use of any suitable scraper. In this part of the sealant may well be removed by hand or trowel at the stage of its drying. In addition, frozen pieces of material can be carefully cut with a knife.
2. The chemical method is to use special means that are able, among other things, to soften a sufficiently thick layer of dried sealant. Today, Silicon-Entferner, Sili-Kill, and Soudal Sealant Remover are considered the most effective. However, the use of any chemical agents is permissible only for materials based on silicone. In all other cases, the removal of excess sealant requires mechanical intervention.