Wood as a building material has been used since ancient times. It has many valuable qualities: high mechanical strength, low thermal conductivity, low bulk density, easily processed. In order to build a good residential house out of a bar with your own hands, you need to know the basics of building business, techniques that facilitate work, and have a basic understanding of the principles of architectural and planning construction of a residential building. But the main question that the developer will face is how to build a log house from a bar?
To build a log house from a bar, you need to know all the features of this material and the basics of construction.
Due to its straightness of the trunk, a small number of knots and resistance to rotting, pine and spruce wood is most suitable for construction. Construction wood (wood round timber) is measured by the length and diameter of the upper cut, without bark. And sawn wood is measured in length, width and thickness. Timber is sold by volume in cubic meters, measured in a dense body, that is, without gaps. The standard length of timber intended for sale rarely exceeds 6.5 m; this should be taken into account when choosing the type of residential building and laying the foundation for walls. Longer building materials are available on special order.
It is possible to assemble a blockhouse from a bar with your own hands in 2-6 months.
The quality of the timber depends on how much the wood is dried. The humidity of the timber should be 12%.
Construction time depends on the quality of the material. It must be durable, resistant to cracking, and well dried. Consequences of the construction of walls of not dried timber will be deplorable. When dry, the timber will crack, and you will need to make the exterior of the house. Doors and windows are also installed only after shrinkage of the timber. The optimum moisture content of timber is 12%. When buying wood, you need to pay attention to the appearance and structure, because it often has defects: rot, curvature, wormholes.
When choosing lumber, it is advisable to pay attention and reject a bar that has large knots.
The cost of building a house from logs is much cheaper than building a log house from a bar.
To build walls from a bar with your own hands, you need to know the technology of its connections with each other. There are 2 ways to connect timber: with or without residue.
Connecting the timber "with the rest" makes the house warmer. But the construction of the walls in this way is not cheap, as the amount of waste of timber increases and the area of the house decreases.
To lay the timber in such a way, a groove must be cut in each of them. By connecting the grooves of the upper and lower timber, walls are being erected. The simplicity of this connection method is its only advantage.
Walls that do not have external protrusions are laid using the “no residue” connection method. With such a connection, the effective area of the house increases and the possibility of exterior decoration of the house with modern materials (for example, siding) is retained. With this method, it is necessary to strictly observe the technology of laying timber.
The most important thing is to properly lay the first crown of the log house. The geometry of the house depends entirely on it.
Waterproofing between the foundation and the frame.
Before laying the first crown on the foundation, at least 2 layers of waterproofing (roofing material) should be laid. Spread the horizontal surface of the foundation with a solution of bitumen, lay a roofing felt and a spacer board. Repeat this operation again. On top of the ruberoid you can lay stekloizol. Check the horizontal surface. To increase the service life, it is recommended to lay wooden slats with an antiseptic thickness of no more than 15 mm above the waterproofing layer. The distance between the slats is no more than 25 cm. It is filled with mounting foam.
The connection of the crown logs with pins or pins.
Before collecting a log house, it is necessary to properly prepare the lumber. In order to cut equally exactly the joints in the timber, make a pre-pattern. First on paper, then on plywood. Since the purchased timber has the same dimensions, the template is made one. The template is applied to the end of the beam and outlined. Then cut out. In the lower and upper crowns, the cut is made only from the junction of adjacent crowns. This method is called a cut "in the paw." The main rule in the device of such log cabins - do not rush to the device first crowns.Taking into account the chosen method of connection, you can buy an already finished timber with grooves made in the factory.
Horizontal crowns are interconnected with dowels that require precise slotting of the adjacent sides of adjacent bars. Dowels can be successfully replaced with metal dowels driven into drilled holes after 2 m. 2 dowels are made in the wall. It is necessary to put a sealant and then the next crown on the timber thus installed.
In order for the tongue and groove to be the same, a template is made in advance. On it outlines from the butt of each beam of the place of cut. Cut out. When connecting the groove and spike should be tightly pressed to each other. This method of building walls of timber is considered optimal, because in winter conditions the corners of the house do not freeze through. The first and last crown of the log house is always placed in the “paw”.
A key is a wooden or metal bar that cuts halfway into the stacked beam. This method of laying timber creates the most dense connection
Preparation of the window and door openings in the frame.
5 lower rims are selected in the walls with windows, and 2-3 upper ones (depending on the size of the timber). In the walls, which have only doors, pick up 2 lower crowns and 5 upper ones. In addition, in the middle of the height of the wall, it is necessary to pass 1 solid crown, which is then cut out in the openings. This crown gives strength to the walls until the end of the construction of the log house. And only when installing window and door blocks, it is removed. In the crowns, except for the lower one, the joining of short bars with a vertical ridge is allowed - no more than 1 joint per crown.
Installation of window boxes in any walls should be carried out carefully, with alignment of plumb, level and filling the gap between the opening and the box with mounting foam. To avoid distortions, it is desirable to insert the boxes together with the filling.
When building a house from a bar with their own hands, special attention is paid to the sealing of mezhventsovy joints with insulation. It is advisable not to use synthetic. It is better to use jute canvas, euro or tow.
Using a rolled compactor, you can significantly reduce the time for the production of these works. The roll unfolds. From it cut pieces of the necessary length. It is laid on the lower crown, fastened with a construction stapler, then the next crown goes.
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