With a good drill you can not only make holes in the walls, it can also perform many other useful functions. Therefore, it is rather difficult for an inexperienced person to choose from a variety of models on the market today.
Next, let's talk about how to choose a drill for home needs or for permanent use for work that fully meets specific requirements. In this case, we will take into account the expected scope of work, as well as the functionality of the tool.
It is accepted to divide all drills into household and professional ones. The latter are intended for permanent use. They have a higher price, ergonomic design and not so wide scope of application, as home appliances. But after all, a person who only needs to drill a few holes a couple of times a year is not a tool for the “pros”. Amateur models will cope with such tasks.
Household tools are produced by all well-known manufacturers. It differs from the professional in that it is more versatile. Indicators of its price and quality are harmoniously combined, and functionality - above all praise. Here you can only work with such a drill only 4 hours during the day, periodically giving it a rest. It is best to be interrupted to rest after fifteen or twenty minutes of work. At the same time, work and breaks should be the same.
Such a short time of continuous operation of the device is quite understandable. The fact is that in domestic models, the engine is low-powered and the materials are not very strong. Unlike professional tools, such drills are less protected from water and dust during operation. However, they have a lot of positive qualities.
1. A homemade drill is usually universal. It can serve as a percussion instrument, and with its help it is possible not only to drill holes, but also to tighten the screws and pierce a solid partition. As a rule, they are all equipped with a reverse. But the "cool" professional models have a much more limited set of functions.
2. Home appliances are assembled from lightweight items, so they weigh a little. Cartridge for quick clamping tool is very convenient, on the body there are soft lining. Ergonomic appearance adds convenience to use.
3. As a rule, these devices have good protection and limited power characteristics; therefore, even an inexperienced home master will not be injured while working.
4. In the case with a drill is a large set of components. There are spare bits, drills, and chuck.
5. The warranty of a household drill is usually higher than a professional one - two years against one.
When deciding how to choose an electric drill, know that everything will depend on how often you intend to use the device. With not very large loads, home appliance is quite enough for home craftsmen, and for everyday work you naturally need a professional option. In the passport of the device it is usually indicated what class it belongs to.
And again: if the manufacturer claims that the drill can work without shutdown for at least an hour, then this is clearly a tool for the "pro." Professional devices are designed for long-term work, throughout the whole working day, which is 7 - 8 hours.
Despite the versatility of this tool, different modifications of drills may differ from each other in construction. This is done for greater convenience when performing work of a certain type. Choosing a drill, you need to think carefully for what specific purposes it may be needed. Next, we list the types of drills for their intended purpose.
This device can be advised to work with sufficiently strong materials. They can pierce a concrete wall and drill a metal surface. This possibility is created due to the fact that the axis of the device not only rotates, but also makes pushes back and forth. This is the impact function, which, if necessary, is turned off and then conventional drilling can be performed. Although not all models have the ability to turn off.
Neither elements of a pneumatic type, nor a bearing, called "drunk" - all these features of a perforator - the impact drill does not have. The principle of its work is completely different. It has several gear couplings inside, which together form a ratchet. With effort, the couplings slide off each other and disengage, releasing the axis of rotation, which begins to move forward. Trying to punch such a drill with something heavier than a brick or concrete is not worth it - it will not stand.
So such a device is adapted only for infrequent work on punching holes in concrete.This is not a puncher, and with constant similar loads a drill will not last for a long time. In addition, the impact function entails an increase in the mass and backlash of the spindle, reducing the accuracy of conventional drilling. So versatility is not always a plus, as you can see.
Impact drill with key patrn.
This device can not only drill holes, but also tighten and unscrew screws, screws and screws. If you need to assemble furniture, this drill is perfect. And you can easily hang a picture on the wall. But if the task ahead is more serious - for example, making holes in a very durable material - then the power of such a tool may not be enough.
Drill-screwdrivers have the following features:
In the photo: a simple drill-screwdriver.
Everyone knows how hard it is to drill a hole in hard-to-reach, narrow places. For such cases is designed angle drill. It has an angular gearbox, with the result that the rotating shaft is perpendicular to the body. In such devices, the shock function can not be built in, and their power is not very large.
Therefore, it is sometimes preferable to purchase a special angle-type attachment instead of such a drill. If necessary, it is worn on a regular straight drill. Therefore, thinking about how to choose a drill for drilling corner holes, it is not always necessary to look for complex and expensive options.
Some universal drills are equipped with a special nozzle for mixing liquid and semi-liquid masses up to 10 liters. On the sides of the drill mixer there are handles, and the kit usually comes with several nozzles. The power of such devices is small, but they can work for a long time without overheating.
More powerful devices of this type have several degrees of protection, which allows inserting crowns and large drills into them. A burst-type coupling is used to increase the safety of the device — nothing will happen to a person when jammed with a drill or with a person.
It is used, as a rule, in those places where it is not possible to connect to a source of electrical network. The main thing that you need to pay attention to is the type of battery. Nickel-cadmium batteries are not very durable and require constant use, so they are definitely not suitable for home use, where the drill can lie on the shelf for months until it comes in handy.
Lithium ion and metal hydride batteries last longer. As a rule, the power of such drills is not high and they are suitable for working only with soft materials.
So, what kind of drill to choose for the house: more powerful or focus on the average parameters? The average power of these devices ranges from 500 to 900 watts. Yes, more and do not need, if not worth the task to constantly mix viscous masses or drill very large holes. But if such work is coming, you will have to purchase a device more powerful - only its torque will allow you to cope with the loads when drilling large and deep holes.
And another thing: keep in mind that as the power of the device increases, so does its weight. Therefore, for normal work it is possible to choose a drill with a power of 600-700 watts.
A parameter such as the nominal speed of rotation of the shaft at idle is specified in the passport of the product. The higher this speed, the smoother the walls of the hole. For home appliances, high speed allows you to get more options at low power.
Increased speed is also an invaluable aid for grinding, polishing or hammering. But to screw the screw is better at a speed not higher than 400 or 500 revolutions per minute. Therefore, the speed control must work well.
The diameter of the maximum hole that a drill can make is indicated in the passport for three different materials. This is concrete, metal and wood (sometimes only steel and wood). And at a drill of shock type add similar characteristics for a stone and a brick. This also indicates the diameter of the drill. As for the minimum diameter of the holes, it is usually 0.6 centimeters. The maximum can reach 30 cm when drilling with a diamond bit.
It can be quick clamping or key. The cartridge of the latter type can only be released using a special key. But he keeps it guaranteed, so this cartridge is used in powerful devices. He stands in the impact drill - because there is a large load.This is not very convenient - the key is sometimes lost, and you have to tie it up, and the gear-and-crown mechanism can also cause injury to your hands.
Convenient quick clamping cartridges do not need an extra tool, and they are very easy to use. They also have their drawbacks: they break down faster than the key ones, and they serve not so long.
Also important is such a parameter as the largest value of the diameter of the fit of the cartridge. For the minimum value, there are no restrictions — the chuck jaws may even converge to zero if necessary, although usually less than 1.5 millimeters are not necessary to compress them. The maximum value of this parameter can be 16, 13 or 10 millimeters. On powerful drills, a cartridge with a diameter of 16 millimeters is placed, medium models are equipped with a cartridge 13, and the smallest diameter has cartridges for light drills.
Example of key chuck.
Especially if you have to drill holes or screw in. After all, it is better to drill at high speed, and tighten the bolts or screws - at low. More than eight, the speed of the drill does not happen.
The electronic speed switch allows you to smoothly adjust them. For this purpose, a rheostat or thyristor is used. At the same time, the start button of the drill reacts sensitively to pressure. If you press harder, the speed increases, weaker decreases. For step adjustment of speed of rotation on the case there is a special switch.
In some expensive models, it is possible to stabilize the rotational speed under load. It uses the reserve power of the engine. This feature allows the drill to be adjusted to work with specific materials, and also eliminates its jamming during overload due to a more solid structure.
The soft start mechanism, with which many powerful drills are equipped, accelerates the shaft from slow to high speeds. In this case there will be no jerks at the start, overload of the power supply and errors when drilling holes.
Convenient function - when turned on, the start button can be fixed. This is very good - the hand holding the instrument will not have to be tense all the time. And you can also turn the drill into a machine for drilling, if you fix it on the rack.
When deciding on which drill to choose for your own use, you should not only read its characteristics. It is also necessary to hold the tool, making sure that it lies perfectly in the hand, and it will be most convenient to work with it. Look at the handle of the drill, whether it is convenient to hold it for you. After all, someone loves pens thicker, and someone - thinner. Corrugated and non-slip pads will appeal to everyone - they are safer.
After trying the device by weight, determine if it is not hard to hold. Sometimes it is very comfortable to work with a drill, in which the pistol grip is slightly moved forward.
Example of a drill with an offset handle.
Also, touch and turn all the knobs and buttons. They should not be tight - a smooth ride is much nicer and more comfortable. Also check if there is any play in the spindle.
If a drill can be fixed permanently in a special stand for a drill, this is a plus. As a rule, the diameter of the seat for fixing in a tripod is 4.3 centimeters in diameter.
Rack for fastening the drill.
When thinking about how to choose the right drill, be sure to compare what lies in the case of the various models from which the choice is made. In addition to the drill itself - different manufacturers complete their products in different ways. If there is a spare cartridge, a depth limiter made of metal, a drill, it is worth buying this particular model. After all, buying all this separately is very expensive, especially if it is high-quality branded products. It is better to pay for the whole set at once - you will get substantial savings.