What happens to a brick if it is thrown into the water? This question may seem silly enough. But if you still try to convince him that he will float? In fact, a cement construction material has been developed that can boast such characteristics. In order to fully experience the good quality of this product, it is important to know how to build a house from polystyrene concrete with your own hands.
Initially, this building material was conceived as the ability to eliminate the need for wall insulation from the outside and to eliminate the use of highly flammable foam. Ingredients include Portland cement, polystyrene foam granules, water and resin-based plasticizers. Developing the entire half century, but despite this, she has already managed to win her fans. There are no restrictions on temperature conditions, as well as environmental humidity. The final product can withstand up to 300 cycles of complete freezing and thawing.
Structure of polystyrene concrete
These are just some of the reasons for the high popularity polystyrene concrete:
Of the minuses, there is a poor vapor permeability, which can lead to moisture accumulation, as well as the fact that it is not known how foamed polystyrene behaves over time. The level of styrene that is released into the air remains unexplored. Also, after a strong fire, the walls will have to be completely demolished, although the unit does not burn, it loses its strength and also releases toxic gases. But even in such an emergency you should not doubt the reliability of the building.
In the study, polystyrene concrete was exposed to a temperature of 1000 ° for more than an hour, but this did not lead to its destruction.
More information about the advantages and disadvantages of the material described in the video:
Formwork for monolithic construction
As in the case of expanded clay concrete, the possibility of block and monolithic construction of the building is available. For the second option, it will be necessary to take care of the correct installation of the formwork with observance of a certain profile of components, which will make it possible not only to provide better interlacing, but also to eliminate cold bridges. Blocks can be made at home. It does not need a lot of strength and great skills. However, they can be of different configurations, tailored to a specific project.
Filling of polystyrene concrete
In order for the final product to turn out the highest quality, it is necessary to observe the ratio of the components. Bearing walls carry a large load, so the composition, in addition to the main components listed above, also adds sand.
The process will be as follows:
Manufacturing of blocks from polystyrene concrete
The machine for manufacturing is a usual metal box. You can make it yourself for the size of the planned blocks. To do this, you need a sheet metal with a thickness of 3 mm. Hollow cores are made of the calculation so that the wall thickness of the block is about 5 cm (or you can use ordinary sleeves from a pipe with a diameter of 50-60 mm). For the clamping bar will need a square with a size of 50 * 20 mm. To make it easier to lift the form, the handles are welded to the sides, and the side is welded to the top face for more convenience when laying the raw materials. The compaction process can be accelerated by attaching an engine and making an offset center of gravity on the shaft, which will cause vibrations. It is necessary to turn on the vibrator only for a few seconds, with a longer operation time, the integrity of the blocks may be disrupted.
Pile foundation for the house from polystyrene concrete
Total weight the structure is relatively small, so the foundation can be made of this design, which will be the minimum cost. For example, a good option would be pile supports, a columnar foundation or a tapeless base. We will consider screw pile, since it can be applied practically on all types of soil. Components for it are purchased in a specialty store or made independently. The essence of the method lies in the fact that metal pipes are immersed in the ground, which will serve as reference points for the entire building. One element is able to withstand a load of 20 tons.
Installation of the whole structure does not require a lot of effort, but it will take at least a few helpers.
The foundation of screw piles is not recommended to be concreted. If you decide to use concrete, then there are 2 ways: concrete is poured in the form of a grillage or in the form of a socle.
The grillage for screw piles
When laying the foundation, care must be taken to leave the sleeves for communications. So it will be possible to greatly facilitate further work on the laying. In addition, for the basement floor it is necessary to make vents that will prevent the accumulation of moisture inside.
Concrete grillage on screw piles
The first few days in hot weather need to be watered ready concrete. This is necessary so that it does not crack. Also, to preserve moisture inside it is better to cover it with roofing felt or plastic wrap. There are no prohibitions to use the classic version of the recessed foundation. The advantage of polystyrene concrete is also the fact that when cracks appear at the base of the wall, they remain without damage.
Walls can be driven out in three ways:
Characteristics of polystyrene concrete walls
In the case when ready-made blocks were purchased or they were cast by themselves then the solution will be obvious. After a month, when the concrete of the foundation has gained sufficient strength, you can proceed to the following actions.
Polystyrene concrete laying
A wall of hollow blocks is reinforced with
Special glue is used as a solution . It has better adhesion characteristics compared to a conventional sand-cement mix.
Special glue is used
If it was decided to build a monolithic wall, then first of all take care of suitable formwork materials. You can use plywood with a thickness of 15 mm. In order for it to be less exposed to moisture, it is wrapped in plastic wrap. Additionally, you will need clamps. They should open to the width of the future wall plus the thickness of the formwork. To make it easier to independently expose the sheets you can make a simple device. To do this, you need a profile tube with a size of 40 * 30 mm. Its size should be 5 cm larger than the wall thickness. Every 20 mm welded lengths of reinforcement are 10 cm long. It should be a comb.
Construction of a monolithic wall
Fixed brick formwork
If there is a desire to immediately finish, you can formwork make non-removable. Its essence is to fill the space between the two brick walls.At the same time, the external one is laid out of a facing stone under the jointing.
Fixed formwork for polystyrene concrete
For this option you have to spend a little time at the beginning, but subsequently, this will result in significant savings.
Even before the forcing of the walls, it is necessary to note the locations of the doors and windows. In the course of construction, you can use improvised frames of knocked-down boards to make it easier to keep dimensions. Subsequently, they can be removed. You can insert the finished frame immediately after the roof is covered. The house does not undergo shrinkage, like many other materials, so there will be no problems with the fact that the plug-in structures will crack or break the glass from the load.
Some manufacturers make blocks of polystyrene concrete with a raised face in the form of a certain ornament. If such a stone is used, then the facade is automatically revetted. If desired, you can buy already painted elements or open them with the composition of the concrete after all the work is completed.
Under the draft floor, it is necessary to make a sand bedding to the height of the base. She is well rammed. For this, it is better to use special vibration machines. The next step will be placing beacons. In their role can play the most ordinary wooden pegs. They must be on the same level. To achieve this, the laser level will be a great helper. A line is projected onto the height of the planned subfloor (usually 20 cm). The wooden components are recessed until the mark is at the extreme point of the upper edge. The solution is prepared the same as when pouring the walls. He poured out on the surface, leveled and tightened with the help of the rule. At the same time you need to rely on lighthouses. This floor does not require additional heat, steam and waterproofing. The next day you can walk on it, continuing the construction. Finishing finishing screed is done during interior decorating.
Before filling it is necessary to lay all sewer and water pipes. Otherwise, you have to destroy the finished plane.
The roof can be any
Polystyrene concrete house does not limit the customer in how the roof will be mounted. As a truss system, you can choose, single or dual slope. Attic space can be left under the attic. When calculating the roof, it is necessary to take into account the weather conditions and the maximum gusts of wind that may be in a particular area. This will give the opportunity to choose the optimal angle of inclination. The roof slope must protrude so far that the flowing rainwater does not undermine the foundation. To do this, also provide a blind area. The frame can be assembled both from wood and from a lightweight metal profile. If you properly warm the ceiling and flooring, then in the case of using the second option, the air will not freeze so much that it will lead to large heat losses. By the way, from the attic part of the ceiling, you can also make a screed using polystyrene concrete. It is lightweight, so it will not carry a large load.
Every home needs a finish. To a certain extent, it not only allows you to give a pleasant appearance to the walls, but also protects against various influences. Above it was already mentioned that the planes outside can be finished either with a decorative brick in the process of laying, or with a special block. You can always go the other way. Polystyrene concrete perfectly interacts with ordinary plaster, so you can apply a classic fur coat, which requires almost no maintenance and can last for a long time.
Another option would be siding, wooden lining, block house, or other material of a similar type . The process is facilitated by the fact that there is no need to fix the insulation. Everything happens quite quickly: the crate is installed and the area is sutured. There is no urgent need for waterproofing, because concrete with polystyrene perfectly repels water.
You can also use plaster for interior decoration. Next, the walls are plastered and painted or covered with wallpaper. Nobody forbade to sew up all the planes with drywall and apply finishing layers on it.
Installation of a high-quality ventilation system will be a mandatory step. It is better if it is forced-air and exhaust.The urgent need is explained by the fact that polystyrene concrete has almost zero vapor permeability. This means that all the steam released by people, which rises when bathing or cooking, will accumulate. If it is not removed in a timely manner, it will lead to the development of fungus and mold. As a result, the entire interior will be damaged. In order to remove the infection, it will take a serious work, and it is not always possible to complete it. This step must be taken into account at the design stage, so that technological holes can be left during construction
For more comfort, you can make and fix a visor above the entrance doors. The porch, which is tiled, will also give a special charm. Rainwater gutters can be connected to a collection system. Subsequently, it will be very useful when watering plants.
In the course of reading the article, you most likely noticed that the project of such a house can be easily implemented with one assistant. In this case, you can not be afraid for ripped backs, because this building material is so practical and easy that it does not cause much trouble.
In this video you can see how easily a polystyrene concrete house is built: