As it is known, it is customary to call floating earth a soil saturated with water, capable of spreading freely (“gum up”) in the earth’s thickness. In terms of its composition, this formation resembles a thick mixture with a high degree of viscosity, consisting of groundwater, clay and sand. Preparation of the foundation on such a ground will require the contractor to have certain knowledge and skills in carrying out earthworks.
Before making a decision on the future basis of the structure, it is necessary to carefully examine the soil composition at the site of the proposed construction . To conduct such surveys, it is best to invite experts, which will allow you to avoid mistakes in calculations. In addition, all the necessary information on the actual composition of the soil you can get from the neighbors in the area (preferably from those who recently completed the construction of the house).
Device map for surface drift
As for the independent prospecting of the site, you can explore the soil by well drilling (with the help of available tools at your disposal) or after its deep manual opening. At the same time, the occurrence of a liquid mixture of clay and sand, as well as a strong creep of its walls and subsidence of individual plots of land, will indicate the presence of quicksand in the pit. In addition, during a comprehensive survey, you should obtain all the necessary data regarding such characteristics of the equipped area as:
If the float is under a layer of solid soil
Based on this data, you can choose type of foundation that would meet the basic design requirements. Of all the possible options for self-development, the following types of support structures seem to be feasible:
What threatens the construction on the dry land
When the thickness of the quicksand is less than 1.4 meters, you can use the option to prepare a shallow tape base. To implement this project, first of all you should prepare a trench with a depth of about 0.6-0.7 meters, the bottom of which is filled with a layer of rubble and sand (that is, the so-called “pillow” is being prepared). In addition, you will need to dig a drainage ditch, located next to the future structure (at a depth just below the bottom of the latter).
The shallow foundation
For this you will need to prepare another trench parallel to the main one. The bottom of the drainage ditch is also covered with a cushion of gravel and sand, on which a layer of geotextile is then laid. On top of the material are sewers that have direct access to a special inspection well, providing the possibility of preventive measures. At the end of the work, the trench with the drainage elements laid in it is covered with a layer of sand and gravel.
The construction of the foundation trench begins with the preparation of inner formwork, for the manufacture of which ordinary planks or ready-made shields are used.
Open formwork walls should be laid with roofing felt, playing the role of waterproofing.
Preparation and casting of concrete is carried out in accordance with generally accepted rules and regulations specified in the relevant documents.
To the advantages of slab foundations types include the following distinctive characteristics:
A monolithic slab is recommended for use in the construction of large-volume buildings, an example of which is a multi-storey brick house. In this case, the dimensions and other technological parameters of the monolith should be selected taking into account the individual characteristics of the project being implemented.
It is necessary that the concrete base is poured in a continuous mode, and reinforcing rods with a diameter of 13-15 mm are used to strengthen it.
The foundation can also be prepared using so-called roaster pile piles. This category of support products includes such well-known structures as modern screw and precast reinforced concrete piles.The main thing that you need to pay attention to when arranging them is the correct choice of the place for fixing the sole of the structure, which should be located below the level of the soil itself saturated with water.
You can stop your choice on screw piles. See below for details on this device method: