Many people are interested in how to convert solar energy into electricity. Alternative energy sources have always occupied the minds of people, and today everyone can get the energy of the sun. In the article we will describe how to independently manufacture panels of transducers from available tools (at home), we will give step-by-step instructions on how to assemble the structure.
The device of the solar battery
The alternative energy source is generator operating on the basis of the photoelectric effect. It allows you to convert solar energy into electricity. Getting on the silicon wafers, which are components of the solar battery, light quanta displace electrons from the last orbits of each silicon atom. Thus, you can get a large number of free electrons, which form an electric current.
Types of solar cells
Before you start making a solar panel, you need to select converter modules that will be used: single-crystal, polycrystalline or amorphous. The most accessible are the first and second options. In order to choose suitable elements, it is necessary to know their exact characteristics:
Both types of plates have a long service life - from 20 to 40 years old.
By purchasing silicon wafers for self-assembly, you can take elements with small defects - the so-called B-type modules. Some components of the plates can be replaced, thus collecting the battery for much less money.
When planning the placement of converters , it is necessary to choose the place of its installation so that it settles down at an inclination, taking the rays of the sun more or less perpendicularly. The ideal way would be to place the batteries so that you can adjust their angle of inclination. They should be located on the lighted side of the plot, and the higher, the better - for example, on the roof of a house. However, not all roofs can withstand the weight of a full-fledged solar battery, so in some cases it is recommended to install special support stands for converters.
The required angle at which the battery should be located can be calculated based on the geographical location of the area, as well as the level of the solstice in the area.
You will need :
Support frames can be made independently using aluminum frames, or you can buy ready-made, different in size.
The protective coating for solar cells may be absent, and may be:
In principle, all protective coatings can be used without large losses of the energy being converted, however, Plexiglas transmits rays worse than all the listed materials.
The frame size of the solar battery depends on how many modules will be used. When planning the location of elements, it is necessary to leave a distance of 3-5 mm between the modules to compensate for possible size changes due to temperature differences.
Experts recommend that you also install a terminal with the provided "middle" point. Placing a shunt diode on it will prevent the battery from discharging at night or overcast weather.
The final stage of the work will be the sealing of the fabricated panels using a special elastic sealant. All connected modules are fully covered by this mixture. After its complete drying, you need to put a second panel of protective material, and also place the resulting source of alternative energy at the right angle in the planned place.
Complete video instructions for making a solar panel for a home:
Set the substrate
Layout and soldering
Attachment to the base