Drainage of the dacha is better to be entrusted to specialists, however, if there is no such possibility, then you can try to figure everything out by yourself. First of all, it is necessary to disassemble the types of drainage and the various schemes of its device, as well as its purpose. Drainage is simply necessary because this system protects the house and the site from excessive moisture. If it is set incorrectly, the effect may be the opposite. This will lead to flooding and leaching of the soil.
Drainage system for home To begin with, it is necessary to make out its types and find out the peculiarities of the work of each.
Drainage can be:
Surface drainage can be done without the involvement of craftsmen. This is a relatively simple job.
Depth drainage is best done at the stage of building a house.
The structure also needs protection. It often happens that the flow of groundwater penetrates into the underground space. Water may flood the cellar, garage, underground parking or recreation room. It all depends on what is below the surface of the earth.
Surface drainage of the area is carried out using various drainage basins and trays. This type of drainage got its name because the whole system is located on the surface. Trays can successfully cope with the flow of rainwater, as well as moisture, which is formed as a result of melting snow.
Surface drainage is of two types: point and linear.
It cannot be said that one of the types of drainage is better than the other. Often both species are used together for greater efficiency. All devices in the system require regular cleaning, otherwise they cease to function properly. Well-organized gutter is excellent and copes with its task.
In dot layout, trays are installed, first of all, under the sewer pipes of the house. Otherwise, the water will constantly fall on the foundation and on the site.
Improper layout will cause moisture to penetrate underground rooms.
Trays must be installed so that they are underground. From them will have to hold the pipe to the sewer. From above the tray is covered with a grill. This is a protective and decorative element at the same time. To clean the tray, you just need to lift the grate and remove debris from the container.
The linear system has been known for a very long time. It was used in ancient Egypt and Babylon. Today, only the materials used have changed, but the principle of work has remained the same.
Linear Drainage Plastic or reinforced concrete trays are used for drainage. They are fitted on top with a grill that covers the gutter. The system has garbage collectors that facilitate the process of caring for trays.
Installation of such systems is necessary in cases where:
Installing the water flow will not be a complicated procedure even for a beginner. His device is very clear.
Usually both types of drainage are installed on the plots: deep and surface. Such a drainage network will provide absolute protection from moisture.
Before arranging the buried system, it is necessary to determine which way the water flows during the showers. This indicator is one of the most important.
If you make a mistake with the grade level, you can hurt yourself with your own work.
It is possible to find out the direction of water flow without studying the terrain. To do this, just wait for the first shower and see where the flows go.
General drainage pattern: well receiver, drains and a collector that removes excess moisture.
Calculation and design always depend on the features of each specific area. You can not take and install all the same system. Somewhere additional drainage facilities are required, and somewhere the simplest device will do. In a pinch, you can refer to the maps to determine the nature of your site. Fill up the trench
Even if you have data from the maps, you should not neglect the additional practical calibration of the slope. In the event that it is not possible in some places to achieve the desired direction of flow, you can try to fix it with the help of embankments. However, this procedure is also not carried out without preliminary calculations. A number of problems can be solved with the help of a drainage pump. This is a forced drainage system, which is used in cases where it is impossible to create a natural one, or an additional water delivery device is required.
Not all types of soils are well watery. These include clay. Clay soil is characterized by an excess of moisture. Because of this, the right amount of oxygen is not supplied to the roots. As a result, the plants die. Dense turf also leads to oxygen starvation of plants.
When arranging the drainage system of a small area, it is not necessary to do the calculation in the design process. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the parameters related to drains:
The natural topography of the section with a slope is better to use when constructing a drainage system.
Laying in clay soil
It is easier to work with an inclined section rather than flat. This is due at least to a reduction in labor costs. All you need is to competently combine open and closed drainage.
The clay soil is dense and heavy, therefore, to improve the drainage properties, the soil should be carefully loosened. In the process of laying drains, it is necessary to bypass the places intended for the passage of the car.
On peat soils, groundwater levels are usually high. Because of this, these types of soils are practically not used for growing plants. In peatlands, the root system of plants simply rots.
Drainage of peatlands allows you to reduce the level of groundwater to 2-2.5 m. You do not need to do this if you have already conducted drainage of soil on your site. This can be easily determined. The area was drained if there was no stagnation of melt water, and the groundwater level in the flood does not exceed 1.5 m.
This occurs only on lowland peatlands or land treated by someone. Most often, on the peatlands one can observe a picture when the water is close, and in spring even in some places it is not absorbed into the ground. The only exception is the hot summer, when the groundwater level is greatly reduced, as a result of which the peat dries out and needs watering. Perennial roots are very affected during the thaw period in winter or spring. In such a situation, over time, the death of plants is inevitable.
Not everything is so regrettable. Peatlands can be drained. What can be done for this? If the water is at a level of 0.8-1.2 m, then its excess can be completely diverted from the site, for example, by planting birch trees or viburnum bushes in the north-western side of the site or beyond. The fact is that birches actively collect moisture at a distance of 30 m from themselves. So, you drain the area, while not shading it with these trees.
If the water is closer, then you will have to make a quality drainage system. To do this, divide the area into sectors.At the same time, drainage ditches are placed in the slope of the place for collecting water. In the lower corner of the plot dig a drain well or make an artificial reservoir. All the excess water from the peat area will flow into it. If you decide to make a water collector in the form of a well, the accumulated water in the summer drought can be used for irrigation.
Planted moisture-loving fruit / ornamental crops around the pond.
Two ditches should pass along the edges of the land plot, transverse ones should be provided for high-quality drainage of the peat bog. For example, for 6 acres, it is enough to make 1-2 transverse ditches. The depth of the ditch should reach about 40-50 cm. When digging a trench, dump the top layer of soil onto the edges of the beds that will be settled afterwards.
Surplus water in the soil
For safety, it is better to make a closed drainage system. The principle of its installation will be described below.
It is impossible for water to accumulate at least on a small piece of land - melt or rain. If you find those clusters, then make in such places mounds of soil and sand, as well as fertile soil. The drainage sleeves should converge to the well / reservoir.
On peat bogs, plants should be grown in raised beds. If the peat dries out in the summer due to heat, it will need to be watered regularly and abundantly.
In cases when the groundwater level cannot be lowered to the level of 2 m, fruit trees on it will need to be planted on artificial hills having a height of 30-50 cm. As the tree grows, the diameter the mound will have to be increased.
For the marsh area
The most common error during the settlement drainage system is that it is installed without proper design. When installing drainage pipes and systems it is necessary, first of all, to understand the situation. It is necessary to analyze the site itself and the nature of groundwater.
For example, water very often affects the foundation. To protect it, you need to design a drainage system when building a house. In this case, you will need to install an additional basement, which will serve as a barrier to groundwater. If the design was made incorrectly, then the situation can only be complicated. Groundwater will flow into the basement and affect the foundation. In difficult cases, you will need to contact specialists.
These schemes will help you plan the drainage of the site according to the requirements: