Each country site needs a water source. To get a water resource, it is necessary to equip a well or a well. In this article, we will describe the technology of drilling a well with our own hands, consider various methods (percussive drilling, using water), and also show video instructions.
Before starting work, it is necessary:
Wells are of two types:
When setting up wells, it is recommended to choose a place where the aquifers do not lie deeper than 20 m, as this depth compels us to use more sophisticated construction equipment.
The diameter of the well is determined by the diameter of the manual drill and the pipe that will be placed in the hole made in the ground. The standard pipe diameter does not exceed 11-12 cm. Therefore, the diameter of the well should not be less than 14-15 cm.
Self-made auger drill
As a tool with which you can make a hole in the ground, the following types of drills can be used:
If there is non-falling ground on the plot, it is wiser to use a spoon. For hard soils, it is recommended to use a drill bit. It is best to work with mixed soils with auger auger.
The classic scheme of manual drilling of wells
Scheme of the filter
The well can be protected from external contamination using directly mounted her roof.
For work, you will need to collect the following material:
The main tool of a drilling rig is a driving glass.Here are its distinctive features:
Among other things, this technology requires the use of a tower. It can be done independently, giving the shape of a tripod:
The process of drilling with a glass is described below. The work is carried out as follows:
The technology of percussive drilling using glass is possible only on loose and soft soils. For example, if the soil benefits from sand, then given the fact that the sand particles are not interconnected, the friction force will not be able to keep the sand in the glass.
We describe below the technology of percussion drilling on loose soils.
on loose soils
If the soil consists mostly from sand, then the shell is used as a shell. This instrument consists of the following structure:
Often, during percussion drilling, homogeneous loose soil or its layers can be found. And to prevent falling asleep it is necessary to do the following:
The casing section must be larger than the diameter of the bushing. This will ensure free movement of the projectile inside the pipe.
on hard ground
If the soil is rocky, then a chisel is used in percussion drilling. With powerful blows, the chisel breaks / breaks away particles of solid ground. Crashed particles are lifted out by the sludge.
If the work is done on hard ground, the casing pipe will not be able to cut the soil on its own. Therefore, you will need to use special movable cutters, which will expand the diameter of the trunk.
In order to lower the cutters, the cutters should be folded so that the device fits into the casing. Upon reaching the desired depth under the influence of springs, the device is brought to a working condition, thereby cutting off the soil from the walls of the trunk. As a result, the casing is lowered.
What if there are intermediate aquifer lenses while drilling? In this case, the installation of the casing. If this is not done, water will simply flood the face, which will impede the work. To do this, the lower edge of the column rests on the soil layer, which is below the water level. After siphoning the water and zhelonkom eliminate breed.
Before and during the percussion drilling process, you should observe some of the nuances described below:
Strange as it may seem, you can get water from the ground by the water itself. More precisely, to formulate it, then water is used for drilling under high pressure. The principle of this technique is that under high pressure water is able to break up the rock found on its way, destroying it into particles, and then washing it out. To carry out water drilling work, it will be necessary to prepare the following equipment:
In this work, the main thing is to properly organize the drilling process, since the installation itself does not have complicated technical subtleties. Then you can learn more about the technology works.
First of all, it is necessary to perform drilling at a shallow depth in any way. Drilling is performed to the extent that the casing enters up to half of its length. After that, organize the water supply to the tip of the drilling rig. The installation itself is lowered all the way into the casing. After turning on the generator, an electric motor starts working, which supplies water through a hose. This motor can create a lot of pressure. The pressure itself is further enhanced by narrowing the hose to the end of the installation.
The flow rate of water is fully proportional to the diameter of the outlet cross-section. And due to the high pressure of water, the process of leaching of rock particles is carried out.
Due to the pressure inside, sand and water rise from the well to the outside. During the drilling, the operator is required only to lower the drilling rig in time to the casing and to create translational or rotational movements of the rig. In the process of advancement, it is necessary to build up the casing in time. The entire drilling cycle is repeated.
As regards the use of water, both flowing and previously used fluid are used for drilling. But there is one nuance. If during drilling to use water according to the principle of a closed cycle, the drilling process is significantly accelerated. Moreover, water, which has sand particles in itself, is capable of assisting, under pressure, great destructive actions. The only problem that may arise is the clogging of the hoses and nozzle.
If you do not have special equipment, water drilling can be carried out without it. For this you can use homemade devices, but they do not have such high reliability. The only advantage is ease of operation. So, for this you should prepare such material:
Take the pipe up to 1 m long, it is desirable that it be thick-walled. At the bottom of the pipe fix 2 or 3 tubes of small size. They should organize the flow of water. A pump is mounted at the top of the pipe. The drilling process itself is similar to the one described above. At the same time, it is necessary to turn on the pump for supplying water and pumping it to the surface.
As you deepen, a heavy load will be applied to the pump. Therefore, craftsmen recommend using 2-3 pumps at the same time. Especially when the depth of the well reaches 25 m.
This method of drilling is popularly called the “Barbarian method”. This is due to the fact that the equipment is quite rough handling. More advanced samodelkin used for drilling water, more technologically advanced compressors and valve system. They allow you to extract water to the surface without overloading the electric motors. By reducing the pressure near the tip of the drill water pressure increases significantly.
on clay soil
that water drilling can be performed under any circumstances. But it is not. For example, it is difficult to drill by this method in clay soil. In such a case, a toothed tip is put on the drill. As a result, two similar technologies are combined: conventional drilling and hydro-drilling.
The drilling process boils down to the fact that the tip of the drill gradually damages the surface of the soil, and water erodes the rock. When clay soil such technology is most in demand.
The disadvantage of this system is that it is difficult to guess the drilling density of one or another section of the rock. For this reason, soil is washed out from under the casing and from its outer side. But you can solve this problem simply by adding crushed stone.
As a result, the casing pipe will have an additional fastening with the walls of the well. And the crushed stone itself prevents sand from entering the cavity of the well, fulfilling the partial role of a filter. However, after a while, the sand will start to penetrate anyway, so there is no way to do without cleaning.
We recommend reading:
Drawing of the drilling rig
Scheme of the drill
Core drilling pattern
Well operation pattern
Rotary drilling with flushing
Scheme of manual drilling of a well
Scheme of auger drilling
Scheme of auger drilling rig
Drilling rig installation
Technological scheme of the well