It is not at all pleasant to live in a building where the floor remains very cold when the stove is well-melted. To correct this deficiency, you need to warm the basement of the house. But, apart from such an unpleasant effect, there are other consequences of the lack of work in this direction. This article will reveal the nuances and suggest ways to eliminate problems.
Why this is necessary
Basements or cellars are built on the assumption that the temperature below ground is always lower than on the surface and with proper thermal insulation maintained at the same level. Warming is absolutely necessary, it allows you to eliminate such troubles as:
- Swelling of the soil. If we allow such a course of events, then the entire foundation of the house can be ruined and large funds will be required for restoration.
- Great heat loss. Fuel consumption aimed at heating the floor and basement can be 20% of the total. Simple calculations will show the amount saved.
- A health issue. From childhood, parents teach children that their feet should be warm. According to accepted standards, the floor temperature should be no more than 3 ° C lower than the ambient temperature. This is an ideal indicator. But if the difference reaches a much larger value, then you can be sure that the consequences will be frequent colds in the autumn and winter periods of time.
- Communications. Often in the house try to place the main water supply and heating pipes. If you do not take care of maintaining a constant positive air temperature, this can lead to damage to all systems and their failure.
- Increasingly, basements and attics are used for residential needs. In the second case, construct, for example, the attic. In the first - workshops, swimming pools, laundries, etc. This implies the constant or frequent stay of people in them. For the performance of the equipment and comfortable stay requires high-quality insulation.
- Humidity. Condensation may occur due to temperature differences inside and outside. And this concerns not only winter time. If the basement froze cold during the winter, then condensation is inevitable with warming. The consequence of this will be the growth of mold and disease-causing fungi. Over time, this will lead to the penetration of the dispute in the housing, damage to the floor covering and other interior elements. Moisture may leak from the soil through the concrete walls. This nuance is also solved at the stage of warming.
- Food Preservation. Pickles and other preservation is usually stored in the basement. Too cold air will cause them to freeze and deteriorate.
Pool in the basement
It is best to carry out the work in the warm season, when it will be easy to put things in order.
First of all, cleaning
To prepare the basement, it is necessary:
- Full cleaning. Get rid of all the rubbish and unnecessary things that are usually put off until later and never used.
- For a few days, provide good ventilation, closing the room only for the night. This procedure will get rid of accumulated moisture. In some cases, you will need extras, such as heat guns, to help dry walls, floors and floors.
- Elimination of mold and mildew, possibly appearing during operation.
- Treatment with antiseptic composition. It will prevent the spread of any pathogens.
- Install a ventilation system. This step is very important, it will allow to organize good air exchange, excluding stagnation of air masses and moisture. How to properly organize the ventilation of the basement or cellar, read here.
Ventilation in the basement
Removing the mold
Remove the mold and fungus is not a single day task. The fact is that they multiply by spores. These tiny seeds can remain inactive for a long period of time. Therefore, processing may need to be carried out several times. If you do not do this, then all the finishing work will go down the drain, because in the end everything will have to be redone. There are several ways to remedy the situation. One of them involves the treatment of infected surfaces with whiteness.
For a more effective counter, you need to prepare a mixture that consists of the following components:
- 1 part vinegar;
- 1 part hydrogen peroxide;
- 2 parts of water;
- 0.5 parts of boric acid.
The liquids are mixed in a suitable container. Next, the resulting cocktail is heated to 60‒80 ° C. This is done to make the effect more obvious. The last step is to apply the tool on the damaged areas. To do this, you need a stiff brush with artificial bristles. It is important to take care of their own security.You will need a respirator with replaceable cartridges, rubber gloves, a house painter suit (usually sold in hardware stores), as well as good ventilation. At the end of the process, the walls will need to be dried well so that no moisture is left, as it is the main cause of the development of mycelium.
Installation of ventilation
Human life is impossible without fresh air. But there is another reason for which you need to take care of ventilation. The moisture content in the air outside is usually lower than indoors. The humidity control will be solved by the ventilation system. It is especially important when there is a pool inside the basement. This will allow you to remove saturated masses and replace them with more dry ones.
Basement / Cellar Ventilation Scheme
It will be necessary to choose from two systems: forced and natural. The first option implies the presence of a certain electric drive forcing air into the room and at the same time its surplus is removed through the outlet. Either the fan is mounted on the outlet pipe and after a certain mass is released, a difference in pressure is created, which will be the reason for the arrival of a fresh batch. The natural principle of operation implies the presence of channels of inflow and outflow. This type of ventilation is suitable in cases where the ceiling height is less than 2 meters, and the area does not exceed 50 m 2 . In order to implement the whole scheme, you need to sketch a small drawing. It should be applied to the approximate plan of the house. The inlet pipe should be located as close as possible to the ground, and the outgoing pipe should be above the level of the ridge.
From the parts you will need:
- PVC pipe for ventilation with a diameter of 120 mm;
- angles and couplings depending on the drawn pattern;
- ventilation grids and valves;
- puncher or drilling unit;
- clamps .
The ventilation duct
The sequence of actions will be as follows:
- Mounted outlet pipe. It can be located on the outside of the building or pass through the rooms. The second option is suitable if there is an additional utility room through which the duct can be passed. If there is no utility room, the pipe will have to be decorated. Strictly opposite each other are drilled holes in the floor and on the ceiling (for alignment, you can use a laser plummet). Segment, passing through the attic, it is important to warm well. This will avoid streaks on the ceiling and in the basement. Place exit through the roof carefully sealed. For this purpose, suitable bitumen mastic or a special rubber seal.
- To position the air duct on the outer wall, it will be necessary to drill a hole through the foundation and fix the withdrawn channel with clamps. The pipe on the outer part of the wall must be well insulated. This is to ensure that the warm air coming out does not condense and the water does not flow back to the basement. From above the butt is closed by a peak. For this you need an extra corner at 90 °.
- The tap hole should be located as close as possible to the ceiling, as the warm air rises.
- For the inflow another hole is made in the opposite part of the room. The pipe connected to this hole should be lowered as low as possible. From the floor, you can make a gap of 5 cm.
- From the outside, it is covered with an overlay so that rainwater does not get inside.
For drilling a hole, a special installation is not necessary. You can use a hammer drill and a long drill. With the help of a compass or a specimen a circle is drawn. On the line drilling is carried out with a small step. The remaining partitions are removed by a chisel. The gap between the pipe and the stove is smeared with mortar.
It is important to ensure that the inlet and outlet pipes are of the same diameter, only this will result in the required air exchange. But the size should not be less than ∅ 120 mm or a square profile of equivalent volume. Otherwise, the system will not work properly.
For the best insulation result should be carried out from the outside. It is all connected with the same humidity. It is necessary to make a good hydro-barrier that prevents its penetration from the outside. From materials and tools you will need the following:
- foam plastics or foam;
- insulation glue;
- waterproofing in the form of bitumen mastic, roofing material or bicrost;
- umbrellas for attaching sheets;
- bayonet spade.
Warming the foundation with polystyrene foam
It is desirable to carry out work when there is no precipitation. They are carried out as follows:
- If there is an installed blind area, it is dismantled.Parts of it can be used as a boot.
- A trench is being dug close to the wall to a depth of 60‒80 cm (it is good if it reaches the lower level of the foundation). Its width should be such that it was convenient for the installer to fit there.
- The exposed part of the foundation will need to be well cleaned of dirt and possibly overgrown moss. This is done with a metal or other brushes.
- If there is a developing mold somewhere, it must be eliminated, as described above.
- In this condition, the plot is left for a day or more so that everything is well dry.
- Sheets of ruberoid or bikrost are prepared. It is necessary to calculate everything so that the two neighboring elements fit with an overlap of 10 cm.
- The walls are coated with bitumen mastic and an insulator is glued to it (bikrost or roofing material). You will need to wait for the surface to dry. It usually takes not too long.
- Foamed polystyrene sheets are laid out. You can take in advance those in which there is a groove for the connection between them.
- Heater is applied and drilled through through a perforator so that the drill goes to the depth required for the mounting umbrella.
- The plane laid on the wall is coated with glue. Its layer must be such that no gaps remain.
- Umbrellas are clogged in the holes to press the heat insulator.
- If there is no selected quarter of the ends for joining in the sheets of insulation, then the ends (seams) are also coated with glue.
- After the entire perimeter is passed, the trench is covered with earth and is well rammed. But this should not be done to the very top. Approximately 20 cm will be required. This gap is intended for future formwork.
- The bedding is made of sand with a layer of 10 cm and compacted well. This can be done with hand tools or special vibrating machines.
- Formwork is made of edged boards or other materials. Its height above ground level should be about 10 cm.
- The lattice is placed in the middle. Metal or fiberglass fittings with a diameter of 12 mm are suitable for its manufacture. You can not make it multi-tiered, it will be enough just perpendicularly located rods.
- Concrete is poured into the middle. A vibrating rail is used to seal it. If the upper part of the formwork is even, then it can serve as a beacon.
- In order to prevent water from flowing under the walls of the house, drainage gutters are installed.
There is another method of insulation that will also serve as an insulator against moisture - applying foamed polyurethane. But, in this case, not balloon foam is used, since it would take a lot of time and money, but a special pneumatic unit. Preparation is carried out in the same manner as described. The coating is sprayed in several layers with short intervals for drying. The advantage is less time consuming and very tight fit. The substance completely repeats the configuration of all the projections and fills the gap well. Additional finishing is not required. All space is filled with soil. Stone and glass wool are not recommended, because these materials can absorb water, which reduces their insulating properties.
Insulation of the basement from inside
If the basement will be used not only for storing unnecessary things, it is necessary to do putting in order of the floor. Often it is rammed earth, since there is no particular desire to incur additional costs during construction. If this is the case in your case, you will have to fill the screed. This will require:
- Floor scheme and basement waterproofing If the ceiling is at a height of more than 2 m, you can immediately proceed to the following points. If this size is smaller, you will have to excavate. It is necessary to go deep by 10 cm: 5 cm - sand, 5 cm (minimum) - concrete. If you want to further increase the height of the ceiling should go deeper.
- The sand is well rammed. It is undesirable to spill it with water so that there is no excess moisture.
- The next step will be waterproofing. For these purposes, you can successfully apply roofing material or bikrost. Insulating material overlaps at least 10 cm.
- Next, beacons are set. The distance between them should be such that it is convenient to work with a rule or vibrolath. To keep them in the same plane, marks are made on the walls, which will be an indicator of the final level of the floor. To do this, use a laser level or water level. With the help of the first, a line is projected on all sides and marks are made, for example, with the help of choleline. You will have to tinker a little with the water level and apply at least 2 points on each wall, between which you can stretch the cord with the coloring powder.
- Floor screed Crate is laid from the bars of the reinforcement. It is necessary for the whole space to be one monolithic slab. This will give greater rigidity and strength during shrinkage.
- Focusing on the markup, lighthouses are set up with the help of the usual building level. For them, you can use reinforcement rods, profile, pipe trimming, etc. In order to fit their plane, small columns are laid out of solution.
- For some time, you need to leave the structure to dry.
- A damper tape is laid around the perimeter, which will serve as a compensation seam for temperature fluctuations.
- All space is filled with mortar and leveled with appropriate tools. Later, the beacons can be dismantled and the cavities filled with the same solution.
- Before all these actions, it is good if the ventilation is already mounted. This will contribute to a faster set of strength and removal of excess moisture.
Tiling the floor in the basement
If you want to make the basement workshop, where it is planned to spend a large amount of time, if there is such an opportunity, you can organize a warm floor. If it is electric, then it can be laid under the tile already on the finished screed. In the case of water, the level will need to be further increased by the size of insulation and finishing screed.
Underfloor heating in the basement
The next step is to warm the floors. This is important to do before finishing the walls from the inside, so as not to spoil the coating. Step-by-step actions will be as follows:
- The entire surface is well cleaned, all loose parts get stuck.
- Gaps and cracks are sealed with prepared glue or mortar.
- As a material for insulation, you can choose foam plastics, mineral wool or foam.
The sequence of work for a polymeric heat insulator will be the same as described for external walls. Finishing is to strengthen the entire plane of the reinforcing mesh, remove the glue and apply the plaster or paint.
Wall insulation scheme
For mineral wool, it is advisable to make a batten. The bar with a size of 50 * 30 mm is applied to these purposes. It is mounted in 40-60 cm increments, everything will depend on the width of the sheet of insulation. The mattresses fit into the voids formed and are attached to the ceiling with umbrellas. Finishing will be the installation of edged boards or wooden wall paneling. It is possible and not to do it if the basement is not planned to be used constantly.
The walls inside can be glued with rolled polystyrene foam. This will eliminate the feeling of cold when touched. There is no point in installing a large layer of insulation, because it was done outside. Another point is the risk of mold due to moisture between the thick foam and the wall. It is also important to install good doors if the entrance is from the street. This will prevent the ingress of cold air, leading to weathering heat.
The insulation of the cellar, which is separate from the house, is performed in a similar way. This will ensure the safety of food stocks even in extreme cold. Share ways that you personally used, in the comments to this article.