The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner

The design and operation of various air conditioners are similar. These systems have a common structure and purpose. The difference between them lies only in the location of the system in the house and the external form of the device.

Device conditioners

The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner Device conditioner

All air conditioners consist of the following parts:

  • fan;
  • choke;
  • condenser;
  • compressor;
  • evaporator.

The compressor compresses freon and forcibly forces it to circulate in the system. The condenser serves to convert freon from gas to liquid. It is usually located in an external unit. The evaporator, on the contrary, causes liquid freon to turn into gas. Its action is the opposite of the capacitor. The choke reduces the freon pressure, and the fans cool the system.

This is how every similar device works. The principle of operation of the floor air conditioner is not different from the principle of the wall or ceiling.

Operation of the system

The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner Operation of the air conditioning system

All parts of the air conditioner (except fans) are interconnected using thin copper tubes. In some devices, the tubes are made of aluminum. A chiller circulates through the tubes inside the air conditioner (most often it is freon). The cooler takes on a gaseous or a liquid form. The system is protected from overheating by fans.

When the vaporized freon enters the compression hole, it has a temperature of about 10-15 degrees. Its pressure in this case is 4-5 atmospheres. In the compressor, the refrigerant is compressed, the pressure increases 5 times, and the temperature of the freon rises to 90 degrees.

The condenser gets very hot freon. There it cools, releasing heat, and smoothly passes into a liquid state. Next, the freon passes the throttle and enters the evaporator. Here the liquid agent is mixed with gaseous. Steaming, it creates cooling. After that, freon enters the compressor again, and the cycle closes. Here is a simple diagram of how air conditioning works.

Types of air conditioners

The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner Types of air conditioners

There are several types of air conditioners, although the principles all actions are the same. According to the type of air intake, such systems can be divided into:

  • supply;
  • recirculation;
  • air conditioners with a recovery function.

Recirculation systems operate on indoor air, intake systems use external air masses, and systems with a recovery function use both of these methods.

In addition to this differentiation, there is another division of air conditioners:

  1. Monoblock - systems consisting of one unit in which all functions are combined. They are very easy to operate, easy to repair and serve for a long time. Such air conditioners are unpretentious. Their only minus is the high cost.
  2. Split systems consist of two separate units. One of them is placed outside the building, and the second in the room. Both parts of the system are united by a tube through which freon circulates. The fan and the evaporator of such an air conditioner are located in the indoor unit, and the rest of the system - in the outside. Between themselves, split systems differ in shape: there are floor, ceiling, wall conditioners of this type.
  3. Multi-split systems are distinguished by the fact that they have several internal blocks, and the external one is still one. Such air conditioners can also be floor, wall or ceiling.

Possible system malfunctions

The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner Breakdowns

Today in order To install and successfully configure such a system at home or in the office, it is not necessary to know how the air conditioner compressor works. But to understand some of the possible failures of air conditioning devices necessary.

The most frequent cause of disturbances in split systems is water hammer. It arises because liquid freon gets to the compressor. The agent does not have time to fully accept the gaseous state in the evaporator.

Hydraulic impact occurs for several reasons.

Mostly this happens with cheap air conditioners, which are not designed correctly. Therefore, at the slightest interruption of temperature, they can present unpleasant surprises. Water hammer can happen when you start the air conditioner in a room with negative temperatures. For an inexpensive system, a temperature of minus 10-12 degrees is enough to fail.

Contaminated filters also cause water hammer. Air conditioning must be monitored. It is advisable to regularly conduct a routine inspection of the system in order to avoid costly repairs.

Another air conditioner malfunction is associated with freon leakage. Usually this happens when improper installation of tubes.Sometimes leaks happen in low-cost, poorly designed systems. Among the very cheap models of air conditioners can be found factory marriage, when the tubes are simply either poorly screwed or have leakage initially. Determine the leakage of freon can be visually with a working system. It causes freezing on the back of the air conditioner.

If the air conditioner is not installed correctly, air and moisture may get into the circuit. This will soon lead to malfunction of the device. The air in the circuit often causes damage to air conditioners.

Therefore, it is better to install a split system with the involvement of professionals who are not the first time engaged in the installation of such units.

Use of the air conditioner

The device and the principle of operation of the air conditioner The use of the device

The air conditioner creates optimum temperature conditions in the house and office. Recently, even complex systems have appeared with the function of ionization and air humidification. It has a very beneficial effect on people, but on condition that they take care of the system. Because air conditioners, like any other device, require cleaning and regular maintenance.

Contaminated air conditioner filters are unlikely to make its work useful. There are cases when people suffer from various ailments due to uncleared split systems. If the owner of such a device wants to get the maximum benefit from it, then he should carefully monitor the condition of the air conditioner.


The following videos will help you understand how air conditioners work:


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