In order for life in the country to be comfortable, it is necessary to carry out basic communications - water supply and sewage. In suburban areas often there is no centralized sewer network, so each owner of the house solves the problem on his own. Periodic use of the home does not require the installation of expensive and complex equipment, it is enough to arrange a septic tank.
Often at summer houses the cesspool performs the function of collecting wastewater. If the house is not equipped with a plumbing system, this option is quite justified, but with the installation of sanitary devices and a large amount of drained water, it is not enough. In this article we will talk about how to make sewers in the country with their own hands in various ways (from concrete rings, barrels, without pumping out), and also we will show diagrams, drawings, photos and video instructions.
Sewage should be built according to the developed project, including external and internal wiring diagrams.
Sewerage scheme of a country house or cottage
Sewage inside the villa includes in its system the connection points of sanitary appliances (sinks, shower without a tray, toilet, bath), highways and risers, it ends with the outlet pipe located in the area of the basement.
The external network consists of pipes diverting drains from the building and the sewage treatment or accumulation facility. After preparing the project, you can calculate the size of the pipes, the amount of material for the work, choose the type of sewer.
Acquaintance with the regulatory documents will help to understand how to make the sewer in the country correctly and avoid errors in the design. The diameter of the pipes is selected in accordance with the system's throughput, a small size cannot cope with a significant amount of waste, and a large one will require extra money.
Several factors affect the location of the septic tank:
The installation of a septic tank requires compliance with certain conditions: the distance from the house must be at least 5 meters, the distance from the drinking well - 30 meters, from green spaces - 3 meters. The place is equipped with the possibility of arrival aspenizatorskoy machine.
Installation of sewage inside the building
Having a scheme the location of all points of the system, and purchasing the necessary material, you can proceed to its installation. The first is installed central riser. Its diameter is selected about 110 mm, and for the discharge of gases the upper part protrudes above the roof level or is displayed in the attic. Two types of pipes are used:
Drain for sewage 45 degrees After installing the main riser, located 4 meters from the windows, lay horizontal pipelines. The ability to monitor the status of pipes and perform cleaning provide inspection hatches, which are located above the toilet and at the lowest point of the system. When installing pipes, avoid turning at a 90 degree angle, which makes it difficult to move the drains.
Each plumbing fixture in its device must have a siphon with a water seal that prevents unpleasant smell from entering the room. The pipe from the toilet bowl is connected directly, with a pipe at least 100 mm in diameter.
If the device needs to be rotated 90 degrees, then it is implemented using two angular elements of 45 degrees.
To connect a sink and a bathtub, pipes with a diameter of 50 mm are sufficient. Highways should be positioned at an angle to ensure the movement of water. The sewage device at the dacha provides for the preliminary preparation of a hole in the foundation for bringing the sewer pipe to the outside. At the output, a check valve is necessarily installed, which does not allow wastewater to flow back.
Determining the slope level of the sewage pipe
A pit was dug for the cesspool
In the absence of the ability to connect the internal sewage of the cottage to the central, a septic tank is installed. This device is designed to collect and purify wastewater. Septic tanks differ in construction, material and method of cleaning. Before you hold the sewer in the country, you must decide on the choice of sink sinks. For the device of septic tanks use: plastic or metal tanks, bricklaying, reinforced concrete structures. Treatment of polluted water is carried out through soil filtration, biological treatment, or drains accumulate and are pumped off by a sewage disposal machine.
The easiest way is to install an airtight container in which wastewater accumulates, after filling it is pumped out with special equipment. The disadvantage of this method are significant costs for the regular order of services of vacuum trucks.
A more sophisticated device has a septic tank that can partially clean the drains. On sale will find several options for such a device, but their price is quite high. With a little knowledge and desire to save money, you can make a septic tank yourself.
Concrete construction of a septic tank
The most convenient installation of a collector from two chambers connected by an overflow pipe. Find out how to arrange it yourself.
Thanks to the ease of installation, many gardeners prefer to make a septic tank of concrete rings.
The device of a two-chamber septic tank of concrete rings
If the soil is clayey or groundwater is located very close to the surface, to arrange a septic tank of this design will not work. You can stay on a sealed container of sufficient volume, securely installed and fixed to the concrete slab in the pit.
Installing an Autonomous Septic TAPAS
Another option is a biological treatment station. Local stations are convenient and efficient, they are indispensable for country buildings of a large area. The installation and start-up of the device are handled by experts, the cost of such a station is acceptable for a narrow circle of summer residents.
The pipe is laid with a certain slope
From the exit point the sewer pipe from the house to the septic tank must be laid pipeline.The line must lie on a slope providing drainage of polluted water. The larger the diameter of the pipes you use, the smaller the angle of inclination required for their operation, on average it is 2 degrees. The depth of the pipe laying trench should be greater than the amount of winter soil freezing. If the depth of the trench is small, insulate the trunk.
The average depth for building a sewage system is 1 meter, in warm regions it’s enough to drop 70 cm, and in cold areas you will need to dig a pit to 1, 5 meters. The bottom of the dug pit is filled with a thick pillow of compacted sand. This procedure will protect the pipes against ground movement.
Ditch under the septic tank near the fence
The best option would be to lay a direct pipeline to the collector. If necessary, perform a turn, this place is equipped with a viewing well. Plastic and cast iron pipes with a diameter of 110 mm can be used for the line, their connection should be tight. After installation, the pipeline is filled with sand and then with soil.
The structure, which does not require regular pumping of wastewater, consists of several tanks operating simultaneously. It can be two / three-chamber septic tanks. The first tank is used as a sump. He is the largest in volume. In the two-chamber septic tanks the settler occupies 3/4 of the construction, and in the three-chamber septic tanks 1/2. Here the pre-treatment of wastewaters takes place: the heavy fractions settle, and the light ones overflow into the next compartment as the first is filled. In the last part of the septic tank passes the final purification of wastewater. Then the water is directed to the filtration fields / drainage well.
The first 2 compartments must be tight. The last chamber has holes in the walls / bottom. Thus, purified water seeps into the ground, which helps to avoid systematically pumping out waste without causing irreparable harm to the soil.
It is worth considering that in wastewater, in addition to organic matter, there are insoluble impurities. In view of this, such a structure will also have to be periodically pumped out in order to get rid of the sediment accumulating in the sump. This can be done with a fecal / drainage pump. The frequency of maintenance of a septic tank depends entirely on the size / volume / composition of wastewater.
For self-construction of such a septic tank, you need to correctly calculate its volume. It depends on the water consumption of your household. The rate of water consumption per person is 200 liters per day. So, multiplying this amount by the number of households, you get the daily rate of water consumption in the house. To the resulting figure, add another 20%.
18 m 3 . In this case, you need a septic tank having a depth and a length of 3 m, and a width of 2 m. Multiplying all the sides will give you 18 m 3 . The minimum distance from the bottom of the septic tank to the drain pipe is 0.8 m.
The advantage of the cleaning system is that the sediment is processed by anaerobic bacteria, as a result, it sinks to the bottom in a much smaller volume. Gradually, this sediment compacted and rises. When the sludge reaches the overflow level, the septic tank must be cleaned immediately. Resort to clean the septic tank should be quite rare. This is due to the fact that the volume of sludge in 6 months will be from 60 to 90 liters.
Volatile septic tanks have built-in pumping units. Non-volatile counterparts should be cleaned by hand or using assenizatorsky equipment.
However, not so long ago biopreparations appeared with special enzymes that process sludge into acid, and then into methane and carbon dioxide. To remove these gases, you just need to install ventilation in the septic tank. Thus, your septic tank will become completely waste-free, safe and non-volatile sewage treatment plant.
Bacteria need to be "fed" with oxygen for greater efficiency of their work. Capacities for a septic tank can be bought or made independently.
Before installing the finished septic tank, it is necessary to determine a suitable place for it. The minimum distance between the septic tank and the house is 5 m. The sewage pipes leaving the house should be directed directly to the septic tank. Turning the pipeline is best avoided, because exactly in such places are blockages.
A septic tank should not be installed near trees, as their roots can damage the integrity of the hull. The depth of the septic tank and sewer pipes is directly dependent on the level of soil freezing.
Digging a pit for a septic tank
If the groundwater is close to the surface, then strengthen the bottom trench concrete slab / screed. The dimensions of the pit will depend on the size of the septic tank.If you have to install a compact structure, then dig a hole easier to manually save money.
The pit should be slightly wider than the septic tank. The gaps between the walls and the ground should be at least 20 cm, and preferably more. If there is no need to strengthen the bottom, then all the same it is necessary to lay a sand cushion 15 cm thick (meaning the thickness of the rammed sand).
The upper part of the septic tank should rise above the ground. Otherwise, the meltwater in the spring will flood the device device.
Biological Cleaning Station
After the foundation foundation has been set up, lower the septic tank into it. This can be done with the help of cables placed in the ribs of the septic tank. In this case, you can not do without an assistant. Next, connect the device to the communications, pre-digging trenches for pipes, laying a sand pillow and installing pipes. They should be laid under a small slope - 1-2 cm for each running meter. Pipe laying is carried out at a depth of approximately 70-80 cm.
The septic tank should be set strictly to the level. In a horizontal position, it will work better.
Installing a septic tank
To connect the sewer pipe to the septic tank, you must make a hole in it appropriate diameter. This is done according to the instructions to the cleaning system. After that, you need to weld the pipe to the hole. To solve this problem, you will need a polypropylene cord and a hair dryer. When the pipe is cooled, it will be possible to insert a sewer pipe.
If you connect a volatile septic tank, then after these steps you need to connect the electrical cable. It is carried out from the shield to a separate machine. It must be laid in a special corrugated pipe and placed in the same trench as the sewer pipe. On the septic tank there are special holes with stamps. To them and connect the cable.
If the level of soil freezing in your area is large enough, then warm septic tank Insulation can be any insulating material that can be used for laying in the ground.
After completing the connection of electricity and pipes, the septic tank should be filled with soil. This is done in layers of 15-20 cm. In order to equalize the pressure in the process of filling the ground, water must be poured into the septic tank. At the same time, the water level should be slightly higher than the level of backfill of the pit. So, gradually the whole septic tank will be underground.
If you are not satisfied with the finished plastic autonomous system for cleaning drains, due to its size or cost, you can make a septic tank from several compartments of their own. Excellent inexpensive material for the implementation of the plan - concrete rings. All the work you can do yourself.
Among the advantages of a septic tank from concrete goods of rings, we note the following:
Of the following drawbacks, the following deserve attention:
It is possible to reduce the frequency of the need to pump a septic tank if bioactivators are used. They reduce the amount of solid fractions due to the fact that they accelerate the process of their decomposition.
If it is illiterate to mount the rings, the septic tank will be leaky, which will increase the risk of untreated sewage entering the ground. But, with proper installation, the septic tank will be sealed, so this disadvantage of the system is rightly called conditional.
The construction scheme of a septic tank, as a rule, includes 1-2 chambers intended for sedimentation and sewage treatment and filtration fields / filter well.
If there are few people in your house and a minimum of plumbing devices are connected to the sewage system, then you can easily do with a septic tank consisting of one septic tank and a filtering well. Conversely, if you have many households and are connected to the sewage system with many devices, then it is better to make a septic tank from two chambers and a filtration well.
Rings for a septic tank
How to calculate the required volume for a septic tank has already been described above. According to building codes, a septic tank should contain a three-day volume of waste. The volume of concrete goods in the ring is 0.62 m3, which means that for the construction of a septic tank for 5 people you will need a five-ring sump. Where did this amount come from? For 5 people, a septic tank is needed, having a volume of 3 m 3 .This figure should be divided by the ring volume of 0.62 m 3 . You get the value - 4.83. It needs to be rounded to a larger one, which means that in order to arrange a septic tank in this particular case, you will need 5 rings.
The pit should be of such a size that it can be placed in the chamber of the septic tank and filter well. This work, of course, can be done manually, but it is long and very difficult, therefore, it is more cost-effective to order excavation from a company with earth-moving equipment.
The bottom of the excavation at the installation site of the settling chambers must be concreted in order to avoid the possibility of untreated sewage entering the ground. Before starting the concrete work, you should drain the part of the bottom of the pit to install the settling tanks, laying a sand cushion on it in a layer of 30-50 cm.
If you do not want to concrete the bottom, then you can purchase reinforced concrete rings with deaf bottom. They will need to be installed first in the vertical row.
The space for the filter well also requires preparation of the base. Under it you need to make a pillow of sand, gravel and gravel with a thickness of at least 50 cm.
To install the rings, you will have to order lifting equipment services. Manually performing these tasks is very difficult. You can, of course, install the ring by means of a tunnel under the lower ring. But this method is time consuming. Yes, and fill the bottom will have to carry out after installing the last ring, which would entail a number of inconveniences. In view of this, it is better not to save on the order of lifting equipment.
Usually, rings are fastened together with a solution, but for greater reliability, they can be fastened with metal plates or staples. In this case, your septic tank will not suffer due to the movement of the soil.
Now it is time to organize overflow, and for this you need to bring pipes to the rings. It is better that they work on the principle of a water seal, that is, they must be installed with a bend.
To seal the joints, you need to use a solution with an aqua barrier. From the outside, the tanks must be treated with a coating or surfacing waterproofing.
Another option is to purchase plastic cylinders installed inside the well. In this case, the probability of penetration of dirty water will be minimized.
Installation of floors and backfill
Ready wells needed cover with special slabs of concrete in which holes are provided for the installation of sewer manholes. Ideally, the backfill of the excavation should be carried out with a large percentage of the soil in its composition of sand. But if it is impossible to realize this, the foundation pit can be filled up with the ground taken from it before.
Now the septic tank can be put into operation.
The system for cleaning drains from barrels, as well as its similar construction from concrete goods, can be two- and three-chambered. Wastewater will flow into it by gravity, so it needs to be installed below sewer pipes. The principle of operation of this device is similar to the construction of reinforced concrete rings.
For arranging autonomous sewerage on the principle of a cleaning system, you can use any capacity. These may be old metal / plastic barrels. The main thing is that they are airtight.
If you decide to make a septic tank of metal barrels, they should be pre-treated with an anti-corrosion agent.
Plastic containers have several advantages over their metal counterparts:
Plastic barrels must be securely fastened when installed in the ground, because due to spring floods or winter frosts they can be squeezed out of the ground. In view of this, plastic barrels are fixed with cables to a concrete base (it must be pre-poured or a concrete slab must be installed). In order not to crush plastic barrels, ground filling should be carried out very carefully.
Sewage from metal barrels is also suitable for seasonal use, but for stationary use this is not an option.
The popularity of metal tanks for the construction of a sewage system is related to their compactness and easy installation As a cover, you can use an appropriately sized wooden blank or one that was provided by the manufacturer. To install a metal septic tank, you need to dig out the appropriate pit, which also needs to be concreted - the walls and the bottom.
Metal containers are not distinguished by a long operational life even after they are treated with anti-corrosion compounds. Therefore, their installation as a septic tank may be unprofitable. Buying stainless steel tanks is not an option, as these products are very expensive.
Maybe you decide that in this case you can buy barrels with thin walls. However, this is also not the best solution, since during operation such a septic tank can be pushed out. Yes, and these barrels have a limited capacity - up to 250 liters, which is not suitable for a large family.
For the installation of a reliable sewage treatment system, it is better to use factory polymer drums.
To make a septic tank of 220 l drums, you will need the following materials:
From the tools you will need:
Standard plastic barrels are suitable for giving / a small country house with economical use. Installing such a cleaning system is easy. If you do not drain into the sewer black drains, the septic tank will be unpretentious to maintain. If the house has a toilet, then the sewage will have to be cleaned regularly, causing assenizatorskuyu technique.
For private houses, barrels will not be enough for permanent residence. For sewage it is better to purchase plastic cubes / tanks / tanks. The process of their installation into the ground does not differ from the installation of barrels.
The distance of the septic tank from the house should not exceed 15 m. Too long distance will complicate the process connect the sewage to the house:
The sewage system of metal barrels does not require large financial investments and complex installation work. To begin with, as in the previous cases, you need to prepare a pit, and then install 2 barrels, each of which has a volume of at least 200 liters. Then the pipes are installed for the overflow of fluid from one barrel to another and the transition to the filtration fields / drainage well.
Each subsequent capacity must be located below the previous level.
The joints should be sealed and the barrels insulated with foam. After that, the pit of the septic tank fall asleep. Since, as mentioned above, metal barrels are short-lived, you need to be prepared for the fact that in 3-4 years they will need to be replaced.
After watching the video and doing all the work correctly, all that remains is to check the system and enjoy the benefits of civilization.
We recommend to familiarize yourself with:
This video describes the general principle of installing sewers in the country:
Laying the outer pipe
Formwork for a concrete septic tank
Concrete septic tank
Formwork for the cover
Concreting the septic tank
Septic tank from European tubs
Sewage from rings
Installation of rings from to Instances
Installation of several wells
Autonomous septic tank for giving
Sewerage in the country
Autonomous System for Wastewater Treatment
Homemade septic tank of brick
Principle of operation drainage field
Principle of sewage
Operational diagram of the three-chamber septic tank
The principle of operation of the Alta Bio 5
Septic tank from two tanks
Septic tank scheme without pumping
Septic tank with filter well
Scheme of the biological treatment plant
Scheme of the waste stream
Device of filter fields
The principle of water purification