With the modern rhythm of life, most of the population wants to build a country or private house. But often when building a house that has 2 floors or more, there is the problem of installing wooden stairs.
When building a two-story private house, there is a question about installing a staircase. The most suitable material for its construction is wood.
Of course, you can get out of the situation by purchasing a finished structure or ordering it, but it will be much more expensive. You can make it yourself, but you need to learn the nuances of the work.
First, the tools are prepared. Basically it is:
Scheme of the project of a wooden staircase.
Before beginning the installation of the stairs, it is necessary to make a drawing and make an estimate, where the height, width are calculated, the shape of the steps and the method of fastening them are designed. But the design takes into account the space that should allow the placement of the stairs, the configuration of the structure and the height of the climb, as well as the aesthetic look.
By their design features, the stairs are:
Screw constructions are rarely used even if the floor space in a wooden house is very small. A small demand for this type of ladder is due to the fact that it is inconvenient to use, for example, for lifting or lowering massive things. It performs a single function - descent or ascent. Because of its design, which consists in the fact that the only pillar serves as a support, it is necessary to calculate everything to the smallest detail, since if even a minor mistake is made, an unforeseen error may occur.
Scheme of the device of the mid-flight ladder.
Marching stairs are installed quite often. Her appearance in a wooden house is a march consisting of steps and platforms. In turn, they are one-marsh and multi-march. Using this type of model, applying all your imagination, you can perform ladders for any design.
Marching staircases are straight, they can be made both with one march and with two, which are separated by platforms. The disadvantage of these stairs is that they are very massive and in a small room their use is unwise.
Basically, they use pivotal double-flight ladders, since this construction saves space. It is possible to install marches with a curvilinear design, which has a convenient approach angle, where the steps are turning. In the manufacture of multi-stage ladders, you can not use the site, and perform turning steps.
To choose a suitable construction, firstly, you need to select a space in which the staircase will fit in and will not cause inconvenience in use. Secondly, it is necessary to make measurements, calculations and draw a drawing with the location of all the elements.
Kouour marking scheme.
The kosour is a supporting structure that performs the support function of the steps and risers, and also all the loads fall on it.
The string also performs a supporting function. It is a beam with grooves in which the end sides of the steps are installed. Due to the fact that the string can not withstand heavy loads, it is rarely used.
Steps. The design of these elements is horizontal (treads) and vertical (risers) beams. At the request of the ladder can be performed without the risers, and the gap between the steps will not be closed. In this case, the ladder is considered fragile.
The steps are made in the form of rectangular, rotary, and to give the design of originality - radius.
Rail fastening scheme.
Railings are wooden elements such as balusters and handrails. In form, they are different. Usually the form depends on the wishes of the customer, as they can be made to order.
In the case of a multi-wing structure, an additional support pole is installed or several columns on turns.
You can calculate the parameters of the stairs yourself, but for complete confidence and correctness of the calculations it is best to contact the experts.
Before installing the stairs, all parts are pre-painted.
It can be painted in any color, and you can also keep the natural color, covering the elements with varnish. To cover the most reasonable use of water parquet lacquers. They are environmentally friendly, do not have strong odors and dry quickly.
To install the kosour against the wall, it is necessary that the walls be perfectly smooth.
After preparing and painting all the elements of the future staircase in a wooden house, you can proceed to assembly and installation.
First of all, begin to establish those elements to which later it will be difficult to approach. If the house is two-storied, first install a fence on the top floor, since then it will be difficult to install the facing boards. When the fence is mounted, proceed to the layout on the walls of the location kosour and intermediate pillars. When performing this work, problems may arise due to the roughness of the walls. In order to avoid problems, before starting the installation of the structure, care must be taken to align the walls, but this is required if the mowers are attached directly to the wall. If the project was mounted mount on the upper wall kosour and auxiliary pillars indented from the wall, the alignment is optional.
In order to avoid blunders when drilling holes, it is best to perform them directly on the spot in elements that have already been painted in advance. The evenness and accuracy of the design depends on the correct holes.
In order not to be mistaken, you first need to make a hole for the stud in the kosour or in the pole, then attach the element to the location and make a mark through the hole. Such work alone can not do, because some of the details are very difficult. At the mark a cross is drawn, the length of the strips is 3-4 cm, which will further help to align the hole. Bridgeboards are fastened with the help of blind plugs and dowels, which are installed about 3 pieces for every 2 m of the structure.
The scheme of fastening the steps of a wooden staircase.
Next you can proceed to the process of fastening steps. First you need to mark the places where the steps will be located. For this you need to rely on previously made calculations and drawings. When marking for holding horizontal lines level is used to avoid irregularities. It is necessary to consider that at first the attachment is made on one sideplate or bowstring. After this, a stage is set and the level is checked, and only after that it is possible to make markup on the second skid. To avoid mistakes, it is not recommended to mount steps at once, but only after all the markings.
Stage markings are produced from the bottom up, and when it comes to the last step, you need to check its size. If it does not match, then the markup is adjusted. Only after all the markings are done correctly, you can start drilling steps and their fastening.
According to the lines drawn on the string, a corner is set with screws, steps are subsequently installed on it, which are fastened with screws. To attach the steps, you will need 4 screws, two for each side, but if their number is increased, you can exclude the squeak. The flight of stairs is ready.
Rail installation must be taken very seriously. They must be cut at one angle, which creates difficulties when cutting manually, as there is a possibility of an error. In this regard, the cut is made on a special machine. The fence posts are fixed to the floor with hardware.
To attach the handrail, a recess with a smaller diameter than the rod is drilled in the string, balusters and in the handhold itself. Then the structure is installed on the pins and fastened with screws. For the stability of the fence, the lower end of the handrails is attached to the pole, and the upper end - to the wall or to a pole made of wood. The mount must be strong, since a large load goes precisely in these places.