In our own house with 2 floors and more, as well as in a two-level apartment, the staircase to the second floor and above can not be done. It is possible to attract specialists to their construction or to make such stairs with your own hands . The construction of stairs is a rather complicated issue, but it is decided if we know the rules for approaching it in detail.
Design scheme of the interfloor stairs in the house.
The installation and installation of an interfloor staircase begin with the determination of the site, which is optimal for all requirements.
This, which will not occupy the much-needed space in the rooms on the floor, but at the same time will allow the staircase to be placed normally, taking into account building codes and safety requirements (including fire). In addition, the staircase should be convenient to use.
When choosing a place to install a staircase to the second floor, the owner of the building to a certain extent sets the general criteria for its construction. Since different types and configurations of stairs require different areas for their placement, then, starting from the chosen installation point, you can decide on the type of designed stairs.
The device of the Marching stairs.
The most famous and sought-after view is the flight stairs. This is a classic stair building. They are characterized by direct marches, that is, directly located supporting beams made of wood, metal or concrete, on which steps are rigidly fixed on top. Bearing beams of these marches are called kosouri. This is the main part of the mid-flight ladder. Complement the kosoura can be the so-called bowstring - an inclined beam, which goes along the side of the flight of stairs, to which the steps fasten with the end.
Ladder structures may include vertical fencing devices - handrails consisting of vertical racks of different types, covered with a handrail strip, which serves as a support. In addition, the steps themselves can consist of both horizontal bars - treads, and of horizontal and additional vertical parts - risers. The risers are mounted between the treads, setting the height of the step and further enhancing the carrying capacity of the ladder structure.
Marches of such structures usually have an angle to the floor of no more than 45 0 , therefore, to accommodate the staircase (the so-called vertical opening, in which the staircase is located), a platform is needed, the dimensions of which will be no less than 1600х1600 mm. Accordingly, the smaller the slope of the flight of stairs, the larger the area required for the cell arrangement.
The staircase on the balts.
Derivatives of marching can be considered stair designs, which are similar to the first, but do not have in their composition bearing beams. They are rigidly attached to one of the walls that define the stairwell. The name of the structure comes from the German word bolzen, which means bolt. One-sided fastening to the wall of the flight of stairs, made with special bolts, on the one hand, gives the staircase an airy, floating view (they often have no risers), and on the other hand, it imposes very strict requirements on the quality of the materials used. The base (frame) in such stairs is made of metal, and tread - of wood, stone or glass. The fastening system of such ladder structures implies the mandatory placement of them along the wall, which will be the carrier for them. The opposite part of the frame will rest on the handrail.
Such a design, in comparison with the marching, has significant advantages:
Along with the advantages, there are also negative sides, the main of which is the obligatory presence of a supporting wall. Without it, do not fasten the construction "on the boats". That is, to install such a ladder anywhere in the building will fail.
The device of a spiral staircase.
Such a structure has one undoubted advantage - compactness. The scheme of its construction is quite simple: on the central support, made of wood or metal and located between 2 adjacent floors of the building, steps are rigidly mounted. They are located fan. Prostrations have a rather complex shape, resembling a triangle with rounded vertices. The wide part of the tread is turned outwards, the narrow part is attached to the support.The handrail of the structure, the posts of which are mounted on the wide end of the steps, has as a result a spiral appearance.
The ease of use of such facilities essentially depends on the diameter of the staircase. The smaller the diameter of the cage, the smaller the tread width is at the same height of the risers. Such structures, as a rule, are mostly used between the ground and basement floors or for communication with the attic.
If the installation site of the ladder structure is determined correctly, taking into account all possible internal factors, and its optimal form is selected, it remains to make the necessary calculations. Usually, if there is the necessary space for constructing a staircase to the second floor, moreover, in a house built of wood, marching structures made of wood are used.
Example of the calculation of the flight of stairs.
When making all calculations that anticipate construction, the process should take into account the need to build a structure that would allow a person to use it easily and comfortably. Such a structure, properly executed, should allow even at night to move along it, not feeling the next step with the foot, but using the usual step.
There are averaged data of the dimensions of the staircase elements, which in calculations are taken as the basis. The slope of the march should be performed between 33-45 °. It is believed that the movement along the flight of stairs is most comfortable if moving from one step to the next tread will fit into a normal human step. Therefore, with an average step size of about 600 mm, the height of the step (risers) must be within 150-200 mm, and the tread width must be at least 200 mm. Guided by the above data, you can determine the parameters of the future ladder.
Calculation of the height and width of the step.
For example, choosing the optimal slope of the stairway at 38 °, you should build a model of a right triangle, the vertical leg (H) of which will be equal to the sum of the room height and the thickness of the first floor overlap correspond to the bottom of the ladder, and the hypotenuse (L) of this triangle will be equal to the length of the projected march.
The length of the march is found as a result of dividing H by the sine of the 38 ° angle. If the height H is 3000 mm, the angle of the march is 38 °, then in this case L = 3000 / 0.616 = 4870 mm. The sole P of the ladder structure is determined by multiplying the hypotenuse L by the cosine of the angle 38 ° and will be equal to 4870 x 0.788 = 3840 mm.
The number of steps (n) is determined by dividing the height H by the height of the steps (risers) (h) recommended in 200 mm. As a result of the calculation we get: n = 3000/200 = 15. This number of steps is considered optimal and not burdensome for lifting. However, it should be borne in mind that the last, upper step coincides with the floor of the second floor, therefore it is not taken into account when calculating the tread width.
To determine the width of the steps (p) the length of the foot of the march P should be divided by the number of steps (n - 1): p = 3840/14 = 274 mm.
The width of the stairs is recommended to be installed from 1000 to 1500 mm. The widest make it, if it is possible for the simultaneous passage of 2 people.
It is also necessary to pay attention to the gap between the ceiling of the first floor and the crests of the steps. It should not be less than 1900-1950 mm.
The next step in the device of the staircase should be the choice of material that will be in harmony with the design of the house and, of course, correspond to the required quality. Oak, beech or softwood are well suited for this purpose.