Cheap and warm - with these two words you can describe a home made of expanded clay with your own hands. The method of such construction may be to the liking of those who wish to have their own housing with minimal material costs. In addition, such a project takes less time and effort to implement as compared to brick buildings.
Some are skeptical about claydite, talking about its instability or instability. But even if we do not know something to the end, this does not mean that it is bad. To fully appreciate this building material, you need to know about its strengths and weaknesses.
Ceramsite concrete blocks
It has a low density
Disadvantages, in principle, can be considered insignificant if we compare how much cost is spent on the purchase and delivery of finished products. The advantages overlap with all the shortcomings. The full picture is needed only to take into account certain nuances in the design and procurement.
There are two main ways to build claydite :
In the first version, you can buy ready-made blocks or make them yourself. It is important to remember that when making such a decision it will be necessary to use a solution that will necessarily create cold bridges, which will reduce the thermal characteristics by a certain percentage.
The monolithic fill is that a special composition is prepared, from which the walls are erected. There are difficulties, but the design is very durable and resistant to various influences. In this case, you can easily do the work yourself. The time goes a little longer than the block masonry, but the result is definitely worth it.
Form for claydite-concrete
To start work, you will need a machine, which will be used for the manufacture of blocks. You can buy it at an affordable price or make it yourself. If you own elementary skills with a grinder and welding machine, then this will not be a big problem. Forms do not have to be metal, wooden can also serve for a long time. The dimensions of the final product can be the same as that of a cinder block - 20 * 20 * 40 cm. As an alternative, 39 * 19 * 14 cm or 21 * 51 * 25 cm can be used. For internal walls, the width can be halved.
A mold for the manufacture of solid blocks
With empty formers
Expanded clay solution
For the preparation of raw materials that will be put into production, you will need:
The whole process can be accelerated thanks to a concrete mixer. First, water is poured into it and, according to the instructions, a plasticizer is added in proportions, everything is well mixed. Separately, sand, cement and expanded clay are mixed in dry ratios in ratios of 3: 1: 8. It should be a homogeneous mass. After that, the mixture is placed in a concrete mixer and combined with water. If a vibrator is present in the form, then less water is needed to make the solution dryish.
Blocks made in a machine without a vibrator will have low strength.
The molding will occur as follows:
Calculate the number of blocks
Before you start pouring, it is advisable to calculate how many blocks will be needed for the future project. To do this, calculate the area of all walls. This is done by multiplying the length by the width. All results are summarized. Further, the area of the block itself is recognized. After that, the total area of the building is divided into the block area. Knowing the total number of building units, you can decide what amount of source material you need to buy. The weight of a standard unit is 15 kg, if the calculation is made according to proportions, then it turns out that the cement leaves 1.5 kg, expanded clay - 12 kg, the rest is sand. This data must be multiplied by the number of all elements. Based on the number of components, it will be possible to calculate the amount of money that will be used to purchase these materials.
Filling of a monolithic structure is an integral part of the construction of a monolithic wall, therefore it will be described in the appropriate subtitle.
For a claydite house, it is desirable that at the base was a strip foundation. It can be shallow or standard. The first option is suitable if you know that the soil in your area has a rocky base and is stationary. In all other situations it is better to make it below the freezing level. Components for pouring it will be river or washed sand, cement and crushed stone.
Device of a classical strip foundation
Device of shallow foundation
The blind area
In hot weather it is important to provide good hydration so that no drying and cracking of the base occurred. To do this, you can cover the plane with a ruberoid or plastic film. Periodical wetting with water will be useful.
Such an option with the right approach will be of sufficient strength. You should start with the preparation of formwork. It is on how well it will be made that the final result will depend. At this stage you should not spare money. It is necessary to purchase waterproof or laminated plywood.
Filling walls with claydite-concrete
To prepare the solution, you will need:
The ratio for these components in the order of their location will be - 0.7: 4: 0.45: 0.015. This means that for slightly less than 1 bucket (with a capacity of 10 l) of cement, 4 buckets of expanded clay, 5 liters of water and 150 ml of plasticizer are needed (ordinary liquid soap or shampoo can play its role). Kneading is best done in a concrete mixer - this will be the key to good mixing of the components.
If a base was erected, then the waterproofing should be laid in two places - on concrete and from above, on the base itself. In the case when the foundation was poured immediately to the desired height, then the ruberoid or bikrost is laid in two layers, and the seams are coated with bitumen mastic. The main difficulty will be in setting the first level. The sequence of works will be as follows:
With non-removable formwork
There is also an option from non-removable formwork. To do this, lay in the half brick of two walls with a gap. Inside between them will be filled with expanded clay. The reinforcing element in this case will serve as a pin brick, which staggered inwards in a checkerboard pattern. The advantage of this solution will be a large thickness of the plane, as well as the absence of the need for external decoration, if the external row falls under the jointing.
See how you can make a removable formwork and fill in monolithic walls:
Laying of claydite-concrete blocks
The technology of laying claydite-concrete blocks is slightly different from the laying of ordinary brick. Here are just some of the nuances that must be observed:
The seam thickness should be small
Factory units can be with air cavities inside or without them. The base is better to lay out the second option - monolithic blocks. Also, their use is relevant if you plan to use concrete floor slabs. Additionally, they will need to make armopoyas. Wooden formwork is installed, crate is laid and concrete is poured. The minimum height is 20 cm.
For a project of claydite-concrete, you can use both the metal structure of the roof system and the wooden one. The first has its undeniable advantages:
Wooden truss system
The main disadvantage that can stop when choosing this design - low energy efficiency. The metal can freeze to low temperatures, which will contribute to the rapid cooling of the attic space.
Installation of rafters
For private houses it is better to use a triangular structure. Much will depend on what angle of the roof is specified in the drawings. It is selected taking into account precipitation and wind strength in a particular area. Also on the specific project will depend on the thickness of the materials used. Farms are made in the same way as wood. If the span width is up to 10 m, then jumpers are installed like crossbars. When the size exceeds the specified figure, then the installation of bracings that are directed downwards will be mandatory. Both sides must have the same number of racks for balance and proper load distribution. For this design it is better not to use hanging rafters, which are simply welded onto the mauerlat, it is absolutely necessary to provide a base. A channel of sufficient height and thickness of the metal acts as a mauerlat. In case of choosing such a solution, it will be necessary to take care of the quality insulation of both the attic space in general and the roof in particular. A good way would be to use stone wool. It is quite simple to lay in the gaps between the rafter legs. At the same time at the stage of construction it is necessary to consider the observance of this size.
Wooden structures are the most common. For the mauerlat, a timber with dimensions of 15 * 15 cm or 20 * 20 cm is usually used. Its mounting, as for the metal construction, is carried out to the studs, which are laid when casting the armored belt or using anchor dowels. In the second case, a punch is needed, with which holes will be drilled in the concrete. For basic elements, you can use a trim board 15 * 10 cm or 5 * 10 cm.
The truss system of the mansard roof
It is important to remember that installation begins with two extreme trusses that must be set in all planes and securely fixed. Connecting elements are mounted between them. These may be additional beams on pedestals that enter the sub-ridge space or strained threads that will allow them to withstand the level of other elements.
All spacers must be mounted in accordance with how you intend to use the attic space. If it is an attic, then they need to be shifted as much as possible to the edges in order to make more space. Another option would be to divide the whole territory into two rooms, then you can hide the racks in the alterations.
In order to achieve maximum savings on heating costs, it is important to take care of additional weatherization. Run it in two ways. Each of them will depend on what type of exterior decoration is chosen. If you want to cover the walls with bark beetle, then you can use foam or foam plastics as an insulator. The sequence of actions will be as follows:
Insulation and plaster
In another case, you can use non-decorative plaster , and facing stone, which is placed on top of insulation. In this embodiment, the whole structure is more resistant to shocks.
In the case where the veneer is planned using siding, the procedure will be as follows:
Siding installation scheme
For more information on how to install siding, read here.
The porous structure of expanded clay concrete makes it easy to use ordinary plaster for interior decoration. This facilitates the task, in contrast to the finishing processing of cinder block. First of all, all walls are covered with primer or concrete contact. They allow not only to remove excess dust, but also to increase the degree of adhesion of materials. Next, the metal mesh is mounted, which will serve as a reinforcing component. After this begins the application of plaster. The final step is to install a drywall construction or putty.
As you have seen, such a project of a house can be implemented independently, starting from the drawing and manufacturing of building blocks. Do not neglect the advice of professionals and do not consider below his dignity several times to consult on the same issue. Good luck in your endeavors!
An example of building a claydite concrete house:
About the advantages of clay blocks and features of their installation in the following video: