As you know, every man must do three things in his life. One of them is to build a house. This is a very crucial stage, which requires certain knowledge and skills. In order to realize your dream, you need to consider where to start work, what to buy and what stages of construction need to be overcome. Despite the fact that today there are new technologies and building materials, brick is often chosen as the material for the house. And this is not surprising, since it has several advantages, such as environmental friendliness, acceptable thermal insulation properties, refractoriness, durability, reliability and excellent appearance.
In this article we will explain how to build a house out of bricks with your own hands, we will demonstrate drawings, photos and video instructions. Even if you have no experience in laying bricks, you can easily carry out this task.
Before you start building a house, you need to do some preparatory work. It is noteworthy that simply buying a plot and starting to build a house there will not work. More precisely, you can do so, but such construction will be illegal.
First you need to get permission to build from the district administration. To do this, you need to collect the necessary package of documents: an application for construction, copies of property rights, purchase and sale, passport and other documents. Among them should be the drawings of the future construction, and coordination with various services. After reviewing your application, you will be given permission to build. This can be done after the completion of construction work through the court, but still in order to avoid problems, it is better to take care of this in advance.
The preparation also includes the choice of location, planning, procurement of materials. It is also important to determine the type of foundation, the choice of bricks, the method of laying and roofing material. If everything is prepared and thought out in advance, then all the work will be easier and faster.
It is important to decide what works you can do on your own and what should be entrusted to specialists.
After everything is done, you can proceed to construction. All work can be divided into the following stages:
So let's analyze in detail how to build your own brick house.
Building a house is simple, but requiring some effort, skill, and planning. But even with all this, it is impossible to imagine a construction without the necessary tools and materials. Therefore, for such works you will need the following tools:
Sand for masonry mortar
If we talk about materials, you need to purchase the following:
All this can be purchased at any hardware store.
As it is possible to find in construction stores different types of bricks, it should be determined from which brick to build a house. The most popular and leading options are red clay and silicate bricks. When laying, they can be used separately, as well as combined with each other. As experts advise, when laying in the middle, you can add insulation. Since such bricks are quite heavy, the load on the foundation will be appropriate. To reduce it, you can use a brick with cells. This is a lightweight version of the usual brick, which weighs 20% less than usual.
For the laying to be smooth, beautiful and reliable, do not buy a brick that has already been used. Your material must be whole, the correct form and without the presence of cracks.
After all the necessary tools and materials have been prepared, you can proceed to the next stage - planning.
Planning the house
As you know, you can't build something without first having planned everything. Therefore, for the beginning it is important to decide what the building will be used for. If this is a small country house, where you plan to live in a warm period, then you can build it in a half-brick.If the residence will be non-permanent, but at any time of the year, then the walls can be laid in one brick. In this case, the building even stand several floors. Well, when you plan to build a house for permanent residence in it, the thickness of the walls of such a house is recommended in a half brick.
Rearrange of plasterboard
If you decide to build a one-story house, you can simplify the construction of the foundation. In this case, the walls of the house will be made of plasterboard. Under them do not need to strengthen. But when the partitions will be built of brick, the foundation will look different. Since the future construction will be made of brick, which has a high density and, accordingly, gives a large load on the foundation, the foundation for your house should be strong enough. The most reliable is a strip foundation, the design of which exactly repeats all the lines of the walls and partitions of a building. Then you need to fill the foundation for each wall and partition. In this case, the entire load from the walls is distributed over the entire area of the soil, and therefore the stability of the building increases.
In order for your building to have the right location, and during the construction process you could avoid unnecessary problems, you need to make a markup on the ground, appropriate to your house plan. Drive pegs into the ground in places where the corners of your building will be, as well as in places where the pier walls will be erected. It must be real size. Then take a cord or a thick rope and pull it over all the pegs. Thus, you have made a certain landmark that will help you dig a trench for the future foundation. Check the horizontal tension of the rope can be a normal level.
After everything is done, it remains to take the shovels and dig a trench along your landmarks. To do this, you can ask for help from your friends, relatives or neighbors, since it will be very difficult to do everything yourself. Especially when there are several floors in a house, the trench depth can be up to 2 m.
Formwork for the foundation trench
On the basis of technology, the foundation must be arranged above the ground level by 10-15 cm - this is the minimum figure. In regions with harsh winters, the basement can even be 40-50 cm. To do this, you need to install a formwork around the edge of the trench. It can be from plywood or ordinary boards.
In the case when the surface of the area is uneven, you need to find the highest point and build on it.
In order for the foundation to be executed in the same plane, the formwork must be adjusted in height to the stretched rope and struts must be made. It is important to remember that the higher the formwork, the more often and closer you need to install supports. If this is not done, the mass of concrete can crush the entire structure, and it will spread or be uneven.
In order for the formwork to hold the concrete securely, it must be made durable: without holes, openings, since the concrete can flow out through them. Often, planed boards or plywood are used for the formwork, but you can also choose another material at hand.
Pillow under the strip foundation
Before you start pouring the foundation, it is important to make a pillow on the bottom trench, poured into it fine gravel, stones or sand to a depth of not more than 5 cm, after which it must be tamped. If you do not have a vibrating plate or tamping roller, you can use an improvised device. To do this, take a wooden beam, section 150 * 150 mm with a convenient height for you and attach the handles on the sides. Applying brute force, tamp the entire trench. Thanks to this cushion, the shrinkage of the building will be much less, and the building itself will be more stable.
After that, the reinforcement cage is laid along the entire length of the foundation. To assemble it yourself, you will need:
Calculate how many valves you need, you need to advance. It is important to take into account soil data and the number of floors of your future home. It can be said for sure that if you build a three-story house on loose soil, then everything will be at its maximum — both the depth of the foundation and the diameter of the reinforcement. To make an accurate calculation, you need a whole topic, which takes into account all the subtleties and nuances, so it is better to use a calculator.
It is important to know that the foundation can be monolithic and precast. Monolithic foundation is made immediately in place. To do this, mix the concrete solution, which is poured into the prepared trench. Prefabricated foundation consists of ready-made slabs that are laid in the ground. For a brick house a monolithic foundation that is able to withstand enormous loads is much better suited.Even if you build several floors of the house, a basement and a garage, the construction will hold tight. The only drawback of the monolithic strip foundation is that it is not recommended to use it in soft ground. The best option would be a pile foundation.
So, it is time to pour the foundation of your house. To ensure the strength of the base of the house, pouring should be done in horizontal stripes in one go. If you partially fill it or make separate vertical sections, then there is a high probability that these junctions may crack. Therefore, everything must be done quickly and not without additional help. Ask you to help a friend or relative, as additional hands in this matter are simply necessary.
Knead the concrete
First, you need to knead the concrete. This is a time-consuming process in which you need to make concrete, to transport or transport it to the place where the pouring takes place. To pour the foundation, you need a lot of concrete. If the depth of your trench is more than 60 cm, then after you have filled the first layer of concrete, throw the rubble stones in there and continue the process.
After you finish pouring the formwork, you need to compact the concrete, forcing the air out of it. A deep vibrator is well suited for this purpose. But since not everyone can have it, you can, using a thick stick, compact the concrete in an up and down motion. After such manipulations, the surface of the concrete must be leveled with a trowel. Mostly concrete dries for 5-7 days. But you need to start laying bricks only after a month when the concrete will gain strength and will not be pliable.
Waterproofing the foundation
An important step before the walls are waterproofing foundation, thanks to which the moisture from it will not penetrate into the house or basement, and the brick will not collapse. Thus, you extend the operational life of the foundation of the house and save yourself from the formation of fungi and dampness.
Such works can be performed after solidification of the foundation. Everything is done quite easily, the main thing is the presence of waterproofing material (waterproofing or roofing material). It needs to be laid or glued to the foundation in 2-3 layers. After the construction is completed, all the extra pieces that will be performed should be trimmed. The basement of the building should be coated with molten bitumen.
After one month you can proceed to work on the construction of a brick box of the building. First you need to make a solution, through which the whole structure will firmly hold. The main type of mortar - cement-limestone, limestone or cement. The basis or base for any of them is sifted sand (it is better if it is river). To find out how to make a solution and in what proportion to take the components, just look at the packaging, where everything is indicated. The most common proportions of sand with cement or lime are 3: 1 or 4: 1. In this case, the future masonry will be very durable, and it will not be difficult to do it, since the solution will be inelastic.
To find the best quality ratio of materials in the composition, you need to check them in action, because there is a poor-quality cement. You need to make several compositions with different proportions, for example, 3: 1, 4: 1 and 5: 1. The composition is not necessary much - it will be needed only to make small balls of them. Wait until they all dry, and then hit them with a hammer. Pay attention to the ball that split upon impact, rather than crumbled - the ratio of the components, as for the manufacture of this ball, and you need to choose.
Highlights brick masonry
thereafter As the solution is ready, you can start laying bricks. You need to start it with removing corners. The first bricks need to be laid very carefully and carefully, as the further masonry and the general appearance of the future building depend on them.
At first it may seem that such work is simple, brick to brick and everything is ready. But inexperienced bricklayers find it very hard to make the walls perfectly flat and geometrically correct. To do everything right, you need to try and be patient. Such work is long and tedious, but you will gain a practice that will help you further. What do you need to do?
To ensure good masonry, you need to check the position of each brick.
It is necessary to check the position of each brick
At this the frame of your future home is ready. It remains only to make the roof. Independently all the work is difficult to implement. So ask the help of professionals who will provide you with a secure roof over your head.
Now you can be proud of yourself, because you were able to realize the dream of each person on your own. As you can see, to build a house yourself is difficult, but possible. Therefore, if you have plans to make a comfortable home for yourself and your family, purchase material and get to work!
This video shows you how to build a brick house:
Brick single-storey residential building - Cottage
Two-storey residential house of brick
Brick house with a garage
Project with a garage
Project of a one-story brick house 250 m2
Residential one-storey house with basement
Cozy brick house on a plot
Such houses are sold abroad
Two-storey house of simple planning
Brick house with attic
House of non-standard planning
Brick country house
Two-storeyed with garage
Porch, lined with bricks