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A ladder is a structure without which it is almost impossible to imagine any structure. It is used for entry, for interfloor communication, for lifting to the attic or to the roof. There is a kind of decorative wooden stairs, special designs of 1-2 steps, which are used for zoning the space, for example, with differences in floor height. Modern stairs for the house can be different. The easiest way to order such a design, but its cost can be high, so many home craftsmen prefer to do the stairs with their own hands.

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The construction of a wooden staircase.

The following materials are excellent for work:

  • natural wood or OSB boards;
  • metal shaped pipes, corners;
  • concrete .

Natural stone for stairs can also be used, but experience with this material requires experience, and the construction cost will be high. It is best to order such ladders immediately from experienced specialists.

The ladder for the house can be made of different materials. The easiest way to work with wood, more complex work with metal construction. Concrete stairs can be done at home, but you need to be prepared for the process to be dirty . It will take mixing mortar, the subsequent pouring into the formwork, the drying of the concrete mass takes time.

Concrete stairs

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Concrete staircase layout.

Concrete can be used to make stairs in the house. The design will be distinguished by durability, strength, the ability to withstand even heavy loads. The weight will be significant, putting it in a dilapidated or wooden house is not recommended. It is important to note that either a metal frame from a corner or a reinforcement made of steel rods is usually used for casting.

For the manufacture of stairs in the house will need the following materials:

  • concrete mix (you can take ready-made dry mix or knead it yourself from sand, cement and gravel);
  • capacity for mixing, it is recommended to take a small concrete mixer;
  • a metal corner for the frame or rod and a knitting wire for a reinforcing belt;
  • wooden edging boards for formwork;
  • galvanized nails;
  • shovel.

Elements of construction

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Spiral staircase opening fencing scheme.

When building stairs, it is important to consider that the shape of the structure can be varied. A feature of concrete is that when casting, you can provide any bend, dimensions and other parameters. There is no need for welding, cutting out individual elements.

The following elements are used as elements of concrete stairs:

  • frame made of metal angle;
  • formwork (it is removed after installation);
  • metal bars, knitting wire;
  • kosouri, a string, or vertical supports;
  • tiled or porcelain stoneware cladding, can be used for wooden paneling.

The work on installing concrete stairs in a house begins with the design. At this time, the size and shape of the stairs is determined. They depend on the size of the house. Be sure to determine the number of marches. The project displays the height of the steps, its width, method of support. The simplest option is to use vertical pillars, which can simultaneously serve as the basis for fencing. They are made of a metal round pipe, which can be decorated after installation. Additionally, you can use horizontal rods, they are embedded in the wall. This ensures maximum reliability of the entire structure.

Assembling formwork and shading

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The design of the staircase.

Before pouring it is necessary to assemble formwork with your own hands. It all depends on the shape of the ladder, but it is usually used edged board or moisture-resistant plywood, from which the form for the future casting. The formwork must stumble tightly, not have cracks so that the concrete does not flow out. Galvanized nails are used for fastening. During the construction of the formwork, it is important to keep it horizontal and vertical; for the convenience of measurements, the building level is applied.

When the formwork is assembled, reinforcement must be performed. For this purpose, metal reinforcement rods are used, held together by soft knitting wire. Next kneaded concrete mix. It is best to take ready dry, as its quality will be higher, and there is an opportunity to save time. It is not so difficult to choose the proportions of the ingredients, but the ready-made factory mixes already contain everything you need. As a result, the stairs will be more reliable.

Mixing should be done in a separate large tank or small concrete mixer. Filling is performed at one time, it can not be divided into separate stages.After the filling is completed, the upper part of the steps and the march must be leveled with a board, covered with a film and left to dry. It takes about 28 days to completely dry concrete stairs. Full strength will be achieved later, but after a month the ladder can be used.

Finishing the stairs

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Facing the stairs with wood.

After the formwork has been removed and the concrete has dried, you can proceed to the finish. The choice of materials depends on the interior of the house. Most often, structures of this type are covered with tiles. It can be a regular ceramic or porcelain tile, but you can use natural stone. Manufacturers today offer a special finishing material for stairs, which allows you to perform high-quality and beautiful finish. This tile includes all the necessary elements. These are products for the step and the riser, for the corner part. To ensure safety, the tile surface can be embossed.

The process of laying the tiles at home with your own hands:

  1. First you need to prepare materials for finishing, you can calculate them in 2 ways. The first is determined by the surface area plus 10-15% for trimming. The second option is designed in case a special tile will be used. It is necessary to calculate the number of individual elements, add about 10% to them for trimming.
  2. Special tiled glue is kneaded; it is applied with a serrated metal trowel onto the tile surface and onto the stairs. If there is a need, then a primer is preliminarily performed, i.e. the building material in the form of primer mixtures is applied to the concrete surface.
  3. After applying the glue, the tile is pressed tightly to the surface for a couple of seconds, special crosses are used to separate the seams, but the seams are usually made end-to-end. Start bonding should be with the upper steps, gradually moving down the structure. The side parts are made out last, when the main part is ready.

How to make a fence?

The construction of stairs usually involves not only the installation of the structure itself, but also the fence. For concrete stairs, they can be the simplest. Most often, during the reinforcement and installation of the supports, mortgages are immediately mounted, which, after pouring and drying, are reliably hardened.

The simplest option is to use metal pipes as balusters and wooden beams for the railing.

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The design of the spiral staircase.

After the construction of the stairs is completed, the pipes are painted and the railings can be sanded and varnished. Despite the seeming simplicity, such a fence can look stylish and attractive.

A more expensive option is to create a glass fence. Support metal pipes are used for it, but thick tempered glass is used as the panels that will be between them. From above, to make safe use of this fence, you can install a thin metal bar or wood. This option is great for modern interiors, it will be not only beautiful, but also stylish.

If wood panels and planks are used to finish the steps, the railing is best made of natural wood. This will not violate the overall style. The upholstery of the stairs begins with the upper steps, all the boards should first be treated with antiseptics, and then polished. Fastening is carried out using dowels, in the boards should be pre-drilled holes. After covering the boards, you can paint, paint or use a beautiful and soft carpet for the steps.

Making the stairs for the house with your own hands is not so difficult. To do this, you just need to be patient, choose the type of the structure itself, the material that will be used for work.

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