Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Installing the rafters, as well as creating the entire roof, is a very important process. Taking into account the fact that the base of the roof can be fixed to the wall, using the available means for lifting, the subsequent work on its creation, which includes installation of the rafters, will be impossible without the construction of scaffolding, which also includes mobile structures. Scaffolding is used to raise materials to the desired height, in addition, they can be used as a working platform for people and a place for laying building materials.

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

The device truss system.

Preparing scaffolding and scaffolding

Installing rafters with your own hands may seem very laborious, but if you follow all the tips and carry them out correctly, the process will be fascinating. If you are building a house, you must use at least 3 forests, in any case, their number should not be less than 2. It is better to make mobile scaffolding for work, as they are very convenient. The installation of the rafters should begin only after all safety issues are resolved, in no case should we neglect this, since health is more important than the speed of construction.

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Types of roof systems.

If there is no internal wall in the house, that is, there is no additional support, and the construction legs are resting only on the external walls of the house, in this case you should use hanging rafters.

What is rafter? Translated from the Old Russian language, it is a construction to support a gable roof. A rafter legs are inclined, with the help of which the roof slope is formed. Rafter legs are usually connected by "heads" or "filly", which are made vertically. Tightening is a horizontal bar, it connects the rafter legs.

Types of construction of rafters

Roofing structures, as a rule, contain the following components:

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Wiring diagrams and their application.

  1. Rafter legs are used to form the slope.
  2. To transfer part of the load - columns or internal supports.
  3. Various inclined elements (struts, braces) that perform the same functions as the stands.
  4. Elements that hold rafter legs together. Usually for this purpose beams are used.

A triangle is the optimal shape of a truss truss. This design has the greatest rigidity.

Despite the many possible forms of roof, two types of rafters are commonly used:

  1. Suspended rafter system;
  2. Suspended rafters.

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Figure 1. Installation of rafters.

The first case is used subject to the presence of internal bearing elements in the building structure. At the same time, truss legs have an emphasis not only on external walls, but also on internal columns or supports. Racks are used to transfer the load. In fig. 1 shows the installation of rafters.

The hanging structure has an emphasis only on external walls, and the rafters on the ridge lean on each other. Suspended rafters are used in the absence of intermediate supports, the width of the span is less than 12 m. The design feature is a high rate of the spacer load, to reduce its use special tightening. The legs of such a truss system should be strengthened with struts, which will also reduce the pressure on the supporting walls.

Walls made of brick or stone require the installation of a power plate. Mauerlat is a wooden bar, which usually has a section of 150x150 mm and is fixed with the help of special studs. These studs must be embedded in the wall in advance. A waterproofing layer must be laid under the mauerlat.

Installation of hanging rafters on the power plate by your own hands: step-by-step instruction

For the work you will need the following tools:

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Scheme and installation of trailing rafters.

  • ax;
  • hammer;
  • knife for precise fitting of parts;
  • pencil;
  • plumb;
  • roulette;
  • construction level.

To install the rafters, it is necessary to take a bar, the length of which will be 6 m, and the section 50x200 mm. It should be noted that if suddenly the section is small, then after some time, such a structure may sag. Based on the above case, the slope of the roof, namely its angle, should be 33 º. The next step of installing the rafters is that, using scaffolding, you need to raise 2 beams and connect them at the top.

Next, the following work is done:

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Rail-mounted nodes.

  1. On rafter legs, you need to "slaughter your heel" in the following way, so that the rafter on the mauerlat should rest well.
  2. You need to do the same with the next rafter. It would be nice if the truss legs are labeled as "left" and "right."
  3. After this work, the truss legs must be joined.
  4. After that, on the place where the rafter legs are connected, you need to perform a “stump” with the correct angle so that the rafters at the top are not overlapped, and then fastened with nails. This method is unreliable, because the rafters are rested against each other.
  5. For proper execution of the "hemp", you should initially attach one rafter to another, then draw a line of their connection (you can use a pencil for this) and only then saw off.
  6. To prepare building material on the ground, you need to measure out and make several templates at once.
  7. Having done all the operations, we begin the installation of the rafter, first on one gable, and then on the other. Using nails, we mount the rafters to the power plate.
  8. The following pairs of truss legs are prepared using ready-made patterns on the ground;
  9. Then you need to stretch the thread along the ridge between the already prepared pairs of rafters and proceed to install all the remaining rafters.
  10. The distance at which the rafters are installed is 70 cm. Of course, in fact it can be within 68-73 cm from each other. This is considered the optimum distance for the roof, as it is reliable, and such a distance between the rafters will be convenient in the future when you stretch the film.
  11. For these purposes, it is necessary to initially make a layout of the power plate, and then install rafters on it.
  12. It is worth noting that adjustment must always be made with a thread that stretches between the rafters, when necessary, it will be possible to adjust the height of the rafter legs in place. In some cases, you need to put a small plank under your feet.
  13. The adjustment in the lower part of the width between the two rafters is made according to the indicated marking on the power plate. As for the upper part, then the adjustment is carried out using a temporary board with the same marking. This means that after each pair of rafters is installed, a board is nailed to the left and right rafters for a time, according to the markings already prepared in advance, which corresponds to the markings applied on the plate.
  14. In the case described, the hanging rafters will need to be connected with a horizontal bar, i.e. puff, due to the large distance between the supporting walls. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the truss pairs were originally connected by a horizontal board in the region of the ridge, thus forming a ridge knot.

Do-it-yourself rafter installation: step-by-step instructions

Installation of a gable roof.

In this case, due to the large distance between the load-bearing walls, where the width of the house itself is about 11 m, the puff will consist not of one bar, but of several planks connected together. Such a tightening made of several boards will help to solve several problems at once:

  • the result is a tightening of the desired length:
  • it is worth noting that the strength and reliability of the tightening made of 3 boards with aggregate 60 mm thick, much higher than if it is a single timber 60 mm thick.

Qualitative roof: summing up

4 and 6 m boards were cut to the required length, after which they were fastened with nails and twisted with nuts and studs with rafter legs.

Under constant control, you need to keep the distance that is between puffs. It must be the same with the one between the truss legs.

To do this, you need to use narrow planks, as in the case of adjusting the distance of the trusses at the ridge, which are marked and correspond to the marked marking on the plate. We must always keep the distance under control!

Besides all this, the puff and the ridge were connected by another board. Given the fact that the retaining wall is missing, the tightening will simply bend, unable to bear its own weight. In order to avoid such troubles, the puff together with the ridge of the truss pair are connected by "grandma". All the above steps should be done with each truss pair.

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