Installing the rafters, as well as creating the entire roof, is a very important process. Taking into account the fact that the base of the roof can be fixed to the wall, using the available means for lifting, the subsequent work on its creation, which includes installation of the rafters, will be impossible without the construction of scaffolding, which also includes mobile structures. Scaffolding is used to raise materials to the desired height, in addition, they can be used as a working platform for people and a place for laying building materials.
The device truss system.
Installing rafters with your own hands may seem very laborious, but if you follow all the tips and carry them out correctly, the process will be fascinating. If you are building a house, you must use at least 3 forests, in any case, their number should not be less than 2. It is better to make mobile scaffolding for work, as they are very convenient. The installation of the rafters should begin only after all safety issues are resolved, in no case should we neglect this, since health is more important than the speed of construction.
Types of roof systems.
If there is no internal wall in the house, that is, there is no additional support, and the construction legs are resting only on the external walls of the house, in this case you should use hanging rafters.
What is rafter? Translated from the Old Russian language, it is a construction to support a gable roof. A rafter legs are inclined, with the help of which the roof slope is formed. Rafter legs are usually connected by "heads" or "filly", which are made vertically. Tightening is a horizontal bar, it connects the rafter legs.
Roofing structures, as a rule, contain the following components:
Wiring diagrams and their application.
A triangle is the optimal shape of a truss truss. This design has the greatest rigidity.
Despite the many possible forms of roof, two types of rafters are commonly used:
Figure 1. Installation of rafters.
The first case is used subject to the presence of internal bearing elements in the building structure. At the same time, truss legs have an emphasis not only on external walls, but also on internal columns or supports. Racks are used to transfer the load. In fig. 1 shows the installation of rafters.
The hanging structure has an emphasis only on external walls, and the rafters on the ridge lean on each other. Suspended rafters are used in the absence of intermediate supports, the width of the span is less than 12 m. The design feature is a high rate of the spacer load, to reduce its use special tightening. The legs of such a truss system should be strengthened with struts, which will also reduce the pressure on the supporting walls.
Walls made of brick or stone require the installation of a power plate. Mauerlat is a wooden bar, which usually has a section of 150x150 mm and is fixed with the help of special studs. These studs must be embedded in the wall in advance. A waterproofing layer must be laid under the mauerlat.
For the work you will need the following tools:
Scheme and installation of trailing rafters.
To install the rafters, it is necessary to take a bar, the length of which will be 6 m, and the section 50x200 mm. It should be noted that if suddenly the section is small, then after some time, such a structure may sag. Based on the above case, the slope of the roof, namely its angle, should be 33 º. The next step of installing the rafters is that, using scaffolding, you need to raise 2 beams and connect them at the top.
Next, the following work is done:
Installation of a gable roof.
In this case, due to the large distance between the load-bearing walls, where the width of the house itself is about 11 m, the puff will consist not of one bar, but of several planks connected together. Such a tightening made of several boards will help to solve several problems at once:
4 and 6 m boards were cut to the required length, after which they were fastened with nails and twisted with nuts and studs with rafter legs.
Under constant control, you need to keep the distance that is between puffs. It must be the same with the one between the truss legs.
To do this, you need to use narrow planks, as in the case of adjusting the distance of the trusses at the ridge, which are marked and correspond to the marked marking on the plate. We must always keep the distance under control!
Besides all this, the puff and the ridge were connected by another board. Given the fact that the retaining wall is missing, the tightening will simply bend, unable to bear its own weight. In order to avoid such troubles, the puff together with the ridge of the truss pair are connected by "grandma". All the above steps should be done with each truss pair.
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