It is considered that a country house with a flat roof looks quite attractive and underlines the consistency of its owners, the sophistication of their taste and originality of thinking. The flat roof can be not only original, but also quite practical. That is why such a construction is often used in regions with low average monthly precipitation.
If you wish to equip a flat roof in areas with a lot of precipitation, allowable loads on floors and reinforcing structural elements should be taken into account.
This article describes how to make a flat roof independently and discusses the features of various types of roofs.
The advantages of flat roofs include the following properties:
The disadvantage of flat type floors is the need for careful design, taking into account possible maximum loads on the structure and the type of material used as a coating. In this case, the project lays the angle of inclination of the future roof (ranging from 3 to 12 degrees - depending on the annual precipitation rate).
The basis for flat roofs are usually either reinforced concrete floor slabs or beam structures made of metal profiles. At the same time, not only the composition of the roofing pie, but also the technology of its manufacture depends on the type of base you have chosen.
According to the method of forming the roofing pie, all known flat roofs are divided into the following groups:
In terms of their intended purpose, all such coatings are divided into exploitable and unexploited, differing in the index of foundation stiffness.
Monolithic flat roof
The monolithic coating is traditional and widely used types of structures (the so-called "soft roofs"). In the section, such a roof consists of a slab-base with a film vapor barrier placed on it and insulation, as a rule, which is used mineral wool.
A waterproofing carpet made of rolled bitumen-containing material is laid on top of the insulation. The advantages of this kind of multilayer coatings include their relatively low cost and extreme ease of installation.
Adjacent to the parapet the scheme
Sometimes metal dvutavrovy are used to prepare a flat roof of the type "monolith" beams with a section of 12‒15 cm, on the lower shelves of which a continuous sheathing of boards is installed, covered with roofing material. The fittings are placed on top with a gap, after which the space is poured with concrete.
After the concrete mixture sets, a classic “soft” coating of roll materials is laid over the ceiling.
Flat roof of corrugated
Profiled is the most economical a variant of the base used in the manufacture of a flat roof. This material can be used only in those cases when the roof is not intended to be used as a permanently operated platform.
The formation of the roofing pie in this case is practically no different from that already described earlier, except for the fact that such a roof needs additional warming.
Typical roofing pie of a flat roof
In a cut flat roof construction is a multi-layer team structure, which includes the following mandatory elements:
Vapor barrier of the roof is usually made of plastic film, which does not allow the air vapor rising from the living room to act on the heat-shielding layer of the roofing pie.
A variety of materials can perform the function of a thermal strip in a flat roof, namely:
Waterproofing gasket is traditionally made of rolled materials made on a bitumen basis.In addition, modern materials such as special mastics or sprayed membranes can be used for these purposes.
Design of the so-called "inversion" pie is fundamentally different from all the types of roofs we considered earlier and requires separate consideration. In the section, such a coating can be represented as follows:
Inverted roof scheme
Such a roof can withstand quite large loads and can used as a permanently operated recreation area.
According to the current SNiP, a small slope should be provided on one of its sides (within 1–4 °) when arranging a flat roof to avoid the accumulation of rainfall on the surface cover. It should be borne in mind that even a small amount of residual moisture represents a tangible threat to the safety of the entire roofing pie as a whole. All deformations and destruction of the outer coating, which often occur during the operation of the roof, are usually the result of repeated freezing and thawing of residues of accumulated moisture.
Flat roof covered with rolled material
As a rule, the angle of inclination of flat surfaces is determined by the location of the main elements (beams of overlapping) and is strictly controlled in the course of their installation. As a rule, the following elements are used in flat roofs for unheated buildings:
When equipping the roofs of buildings of heated type, this list expands due to the additionally used steam and waterproofing, as well as the insulating layer that is mandatory for this case.
How is the installation of a flat exploited roof effected, see the following video: